U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

last Updated : November 19, 2020

Overview

North Carolina rises from its Atlantic Ocean coastline to the highest bill east of the Mississippi River—Mount Mitchell, which stands more than a nautical mile above sea floor at 6,684 feet. 1 The state ‘s terrain ranges from the barrier islands of the Outer Banks in the east, where North Carolina is brushed by the affectionate waters of the Gulf Stream, across the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont area to the heavily forested spine of the appalachian Mountains in the west. 2 North Carolina, particularly the Outer Banks, is often hit by dangerous tropical storms and hurricanes, and the submit is second only to Florida in tropical cyclone landfalls. 3
North Carolina has solid renewable energy resources. 4, 5 Offshore winds along the state ‘s coast could provide energy for electricity generation. 6, 7 North Carolina ‘s solar resources help make the express a drawing card in solar might 8 The 18 million acres of woodlands that cover about three-fifths of the state provide a large biomass resource and use for about 75,000 people who work in North Carolina ‘s forestry and forest products industries. 9, 10 Rivers that flow through the country provide hydroelectric world power to many communities. 11, 12 North Carolina has few fossil fuel resources and does not have any oil, natural accelerator, or coal production. 13 In 2020, the federal politics added North Carolina to an offshore anoint and lifelike accelerator drilling moratorium through June 2032, joining Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. 14, 15 In accession to its lifelike resources, North Carolina is one of the nation ‘s ahead nuclear power-producing states. 16

North Carolina consumes about four times more department of energy than it produces. 17 Total energy consumption per head in North Carolina is among the lowest one-third of the states. 18 The residents, tourists, and truckers who use drive gasoline and diesel fuel on the department of state ‘s heavily traveled highway system and the jet fuel consumed at the busy Charlotte Douglas International Airport—one of the top U.S. airports as ranked by passenger traffic—make the exile sector North Carolina ‘s largest end-use energy-consuming sector, accounting for closely three-tenths of the state ‘s sum department of energy consumption. 19, 20, 21 The residential sector closely follows the fare sector, accounting for more than one-fourth of the state entire. The commercial and industrial sectors each consume slenderly more than one-fifth of state energy. 22
North Carolina has a large agrarian diligence and is a leading manufacturer of poultry, hogs, and tobacco. 23 The state ‘s other key industries include aerospace and refutation ; car and truck fabricate ; biotechnology and pharmaceuticals ; business and fiscal services ; energy ; food process ; furniture ; information technology ; plastics and chemicals ; and textiles. 24 The energy-intensive chemical industry ; food, beverage, and tobacco products ; and the computer and electronics sector, together, account for more than one-half of the country ‘s gross domestic merchandise from manufacturing. 25

Electricity

North Carolina is one of the nation ’ s top 10 producers of electricity from nuclear world power. North Carolina is among the nation ‘s top 10 producers of electricity from nuclear might. nuclear ability was the largest fuel reservoir for electricity generation in North Carolina in 2019 and contributed about one-third of the state ‘s net genesis. 26, 27 The contribution of natural gas-fired generation has increased as electric utilities have added natural gas-fired power plants. In 2019, natural natural gas provided slenderly less generation than nuclear power. natural gas-fired generation exceeded coal-fired genesis for the beginning clock in 2016. 28 Before 2012, coal-fired exponent plants provided more than one-half of the electricity generated in North Carolina, but closely 30 coal-fired units have been retired since 2011 and about 30 natural gas-fired units were added. By 2019, the remaining coal-fired exponent plants provided less than one-fourth of the electricity generated in the state of matter. solar baron, hydroelectric office, and biomass provided about all of North Carolina ‘s remaining electricity coevals. 29, 30, 31
even though North Carolina is among the peak 10 electricity-generating states in the state, its consumers use more baron than is generated in the department of state, and extra electricity is supplied from other states over the regional grid. 32, 33 The residential sector accounts for more than two-fifths of the sum retail sales of electricity in North Carolina, the largest contribution among the end-use sectors. 34 More than 6 out of 10 North Carolina households use electricity for home heat, and, because of hot and humid summers, about all of the country ‘s households use publicize condition angstrom well. 35, 36

Renewable energy

North Carolina ranks second in the nation, after California, in solar generation and installed solar generating capacity. More than one-tenth of the electricity generated in North Carolina is produced from renewable resources. The measure of electricity generated from solar department of energy has increased quickly. In 2017, utility-scale solar world power became the largest renewable energy beginning used for the state ‘s electricity coevals and surpassed conventional hydroelectric power for the inaugural time. In 2019, solar power provided about 6 % of the state ‘s coevals. 37 North Carolina ranked second in the nation after California in total install solar generating capacity with about 4,700 megawatts at the conclusion of 2019. The state was besides second in the nation in total electricity generation from utility-scale and small-scale solar photovoltaic facilities combined. 38, 39
Hydroelectric power is the second-largest beginning of renewable generation in North Carolina, and accounted for about 5 % of the state of matter ‘s total generation in 2019. 40 Most of North Carolina ‘s approximately 40 utility-scale hydroelectric dams are found in the mountainous sphere in the western two-thirds of the submit. The state has one pumped storage hydroelectric facility, with 86 megawatts of generating capacity, located near the surround with Tennessee. 41, 42
Biomass provided an extra 2 % of genesis in North Carolina in 2019. 43 Wood- and wood waste-fueled world power plants account for more than four-fifths of capacitance at biomass-fueled baron plants in the state. Although much of North Carolina ‘s electricity generation from biomass comes from wood, wood waste, and landfill boast, the state of matter besides has abundant biomass resources from agrarian, swine, and poultry godforsaken. 44, 45, 46 North Carolina ‘s forest biomass resources besides provide feedstock for four wood pellet manufacture plants that can produce about 1.6 million tons of pellets each year. 47 Wood pellets are used for heating system and for electricity generation. 48 About 1 in 50 North Carolina households hotness with wood. 49
Wind department of energy has provided utility-scale baron generation in North Carolina since 2016, when the department of state ‘s beginning, and only, wind farm came on-line in the northeastern separate of the express with 208 megawatts of generating capacity from 104 turbines. It was the first coastal wind farm in the Southeast. 50, 51, 52 In 2019, wind energy supplied 0.4 % of North Carolina ‘s electricity. 53 The state has more undeveloped weave resources in its far western mountains and offshore. 54
North Carolina has one function biodiesel plant and one ethyl alcohol plant. The express ‘s biodiesel plant has a production capacity of 2 million gallons per year, and the ethyl alcohol implant ‘s annual production capacity is 57 million gallons. 55, 56 The owners of the ethyl alcohol plant plan to passage from using corn to tobacco as the feedstock for making ethyl alcohol. 57 Biodiesel is sold at refueling stations across North Carolina. Most of the 112 biodiesel fueling stations in the state are private-access service stations used for government or individual fleets. 58 Although about all the motor gasoline sold in the nation is E10 fuel, which is gasoline blended with 10 % ethyl alcohol, a centrifugal fuel mix containing up to 85 % ethyl alcohol and 15 % gasoline, known as E85, is besides sold at closely 90 stations in North Carolina. Most of those fuel stations are public-access. 59, 60 North Carolina accounts for about 3.3 % of U.S. ethyl alcohol consumption and 1.1 % of biodiesel practice. 61

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In August 2007, North Carolina became the first state in the Southeast to adopt a renewable portfolio standard, called the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard ( REPS ). The REPS requires investor-owned electric utilities in North Carolina to have 12.5 % of their electricity retail sales come from renewable energy resources by 2021. rural electric cooperatives and municipal electric suppliers were required to obtain 10 % of their retail sales of electricity from renewable sources by 2018. Energy efficiency and demand-side management can be used to meet up to one-fourth of the investor-owned utilities ‘ requirements until 2021, when the amount can reach two-fifths. municipal utilities and electric cooperatives were allowed to use inexhaustible amounts of energy efficiency and demand-side management to meet their requirements and could besides use large ( greater than 10 megawatts ) hydropower facilities to meet up to 30 % of their renewable energy requirement. Sales of electricity generated from solar department of energy were required to reach 0.2 % of retail sales in 2020 for all investor-owned utilities, municipal utilities, and electric cooperatives. additionally, the REPS sets statewide targets for energy recovery and electricity genesis by burning methane derived from swine and domestic fowl waste for all providers. 62, 63 Most electric power suppliers were given more time to meet the swine waste targets, but all electricity providers met the other general 2019 REPS requirements and were on traverse to meet the 2020 requirements, according to the North Carolina Utilities Commission. 64

Petroleum

North Carolina does not have any crude anoint reserves or production. 65 More than 125 exploratory oil and natural flatulence wells have been drilled in the state since 1925, and, although traces of crude oil and natural natural gas were found in a few wells, none were sufficient for commercial production. however, respective undiscovered areas of the state are considered to have crude petroleum electric potential. 66 north Carolina does not have any petroleum refineries, but there are two major petroleum product pipelines-the Colonial Pipeline and the Plantation Pipeline-that give birth refined products at several locations in the state on their direction to the northeast from the Gulf Coast. 67, 68, 69 A one-third pipeline-the Dixie Pipeline-supplies propane from refineries in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi to customers in seven southeastern states, including North Carolina, before terminating in Apex, North Carolina, merely southwest of Raleigh. 70, 71 Some petroleum products besides arrive in North Carolina at the Port of Wilmington. 72
The transportation system sector accounts for more than four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in North Carolina. North Carolina ranks among the 10 states with the lowest per caput petroleum consumption. 73 More than four-fifths of the petroleum consumed in North Carolina is used by the transportation sector, primarily as motor gasoline and diesel fuel. 74, 75 There are presently no federal regulative restrictions on the habit of ceremonious motive gasoline in the country. 76 North Carolina drivers ‘ total annual expenditures for gasoline is among the lead 10 states. 77 The industrial sector is the second-largest consumer of petroleum in North Carolina, followed by the residential sector and the commercial sector. 78 About 1 in 10 North Carolina households trust on fuel oil, kerosene, or propane for home heating system. 79 The electric exponent sector uses less than 1 % of the petroleum consumed in the state. 80

Natural gas

North Carolina does not have any economically recoverable natural accelerator reserves or production. 81, 82 Although commercial quantities of natural natural gas have not been found in North Carolina, shales and coalbeds in the geological basins located in the center of the express may contain natural gas resources. 83, 84
Pipelines in development will link North Carolina to extra shale boast production from the Marcellus and Utica Shales to the north. Interstate pipelines supply the natural flatulence North Carolina needs. Natural accelerator enters the department of state from the south through South Carolina and from the north through Virginia. 85 The amount delivered through Virginia has increased well since 2015 as more shale boast produced from the Marcellus and Utica Shales further north has arrived in the state of matter. 86, 87 Additional interstate pipelines that will increase deliveries of Marcellus and Utica natural gas to North Carolina are in exploitation. 88, 89
North Carolina ‘s natural accelerator use per head is among the 10 lowest states. 90 Natural natural gas use for electricity genesis in the state has increased closely octuple in the past decade. 91 The electric might sector is the state ‘s largest natural gasoline consumer and accounted for closely three-fifths of the lifelike accelerator delivered to consumers in 2019. The industrial sector led state consumption until 2012, when the electric exponent sector became the largest natural gas user for the beginning time. In 2019, the industrial sector accounted for slightly more than one-fifth of the state sum. The residential sector, where one out of four North Carolina households use natural gas for home heat, is the third-largest natural gas-consuming sector and accounted for one-eighth of submit natural gasoline use, followed by the commercial sector at one-tenth. 92, 93 North Carolina ranks among the top five states in residential sector electricity sales. 94

Coal

North Carolina has a small sum of economically recoverable coal reserves but no commercial char production. 95, 96 The Deep River coalfield in cardinal North Carolina is the only sphere in the state known to have coal. bituminous char was produced from that field intermittently from 1854 to 1953. production in the Deep River area ceased because the remaining coal is profoundly buried, and the coalbeds are broken by many geological faults. It is estimated that more than 110 million tons of char exist in that area, but, because of the unmanageable geology, less than half of the ember might ever be mined. 97
Fuel-grade peat deposits, averaging about 5 feet in thickness, cover about 700,000 acres of coastal North Carolina. Peat consists of partially decomposed plant debris and is an early on phase in the development of char. There are about 500 million tons of moisture-free peat in the state, but North Carolina peat has been used only in agrarian products, not for energy. Most of the state ‘s peat is found in coastal swamps and other environmentally sensitive areas. 98, 99

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about all of the coal consumed in North Carolina is used for electricity generation. Most of the coal delivered to the state ‘s eight coal-fired power plants is transported by rail from states east of the Mississippi River, chiefly West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky. The remaining char consumed in North Carolina is sent to industrial and commercial users. 100, 101, 102

Endnotes

1 North Carolina State Parks, Mount Mitchell State Park, accessed October 16, 2020.
2 NETSTATE, The Geography of North Carolina, The Land, updated February 25, 2016.
3 Donegan, Brian, “ North Carolina Second only to Florida for U.S. tropical Storms and Hurricanes, ” The Weather Channel ( September 11, 2018 ).
4 U.S. Energy Information Administration ( ), North Carolina Profile Data, Reserves, and Supply & Distribution, accessed October 23, 2020.
5 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Geospatial Data Science Data and Tools, Maps, Biomass, Geothermal, Solar, Wind, accessed October 23, 2020.
6 american Wind Energy Association, AWEA State Wind Energy Facts, North Carolina Wind Fact, accessed October 16, 2020.
7 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in North Carolina, Maps & Data, accessed October 16, 2020.
8 U.S.EIA, Electric Power Monthly ( February 2020 ), table 1.17.B.
9 North Carolina Forestry Association, Members, accessed October 16, 2020.
10 NC State Extension, Economic Contribution of the Forest Sector in North Carolina, 2018.
11 Geology.com, North Carolina Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources, accessed October 19, 2020
12 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory ( based on Form EIA-860M as a accessory to Form EIA-860 ), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2020, North Carolina, Technology : Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
13 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Profile Data, Reserves, and Supply & Distribution, accessed October 19, 2020.
14 White House, “ presidential determination on the Withdrawal of Certain Areas of the United States Outer Continental Shelf from Leasing Disposition, ” ( September 25, 2020 ).
15 Frazin, Rachel, “ trump to include North Carolina in offshore drilling moratorium, senator says, ” The Hill ( September 21, 2020 ).
16 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly ( February 2020 ), table 1.9.B.
17 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2018.
18 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2018.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview : Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C3, Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, 2018.
21 Federal Aviation Administration, Preliminary CY 2019 Passenger Boarding Data, Enplanements at All Commercial Service Airports by Rank.
22 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview : Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2018.
23 U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2019 North Carolina Agricultural Statistics, p. 9.
24 Economic Development Partnership of North Carolina, Industries, accessed October 20, 2020.
25 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Interactive Data, GDP and Personal Income, Regional Data, Annual Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) by State, GDP in current dollars, NAICS, North Carolina, All statistics in table, 2019.
26 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly ( February 2020 ), Tables 1.3.B, 1.9.B.
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net coevals for all sectors ( thousand megawatthours ), North Carolina, 2001-19.
28 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors ( thousand megawatthours ), North Carolina, 2001-19.
29 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Electricity Profile 2018, Table 5, Electric power industry genesis by basal energy source, 1990 through 2018.
30 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with former form data ( EIA-860A/860B ), 2019 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, ‘Generator Data ‘ ( Retired & Canceled Coal Units Only ) and ( functional Natural Gas Units only ).
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors ( thousand megawatthours ), North Carolina, 2001-19.
32 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly ( February 2020 ), postpone 1.3.B.
33 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Electricity Profile 2018, Table 10, Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 through 2018.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Retail sales of electricity ( million kilowatthours ), North Carolina, 2001-19.
35 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
36 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey ( RECS ), 2015 RECS Survey Data, Housing characteristics tables, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.8, Air conditioning in homes in the South and West regions, 2015.
37 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors ( thousand megawatthours ), North Carolina, 2001-19.
38 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly ( February 2020 ), table 6.2.B.
39 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Monthly ( February 2020 ), table 1.17.B.
40 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net coevals for all sectors ( thousand megawatthours ), North Carolina, 2001-19.
41 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory ( based on Form EIA-860M as a addendum to Form EIA-860 ), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2020, North Carolina, Technology : Conventional Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric Pumped Storage.
42 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Profile Overview, Map, Layers/Legend : Hydroelectric Power Plant, Pumped Storage Power Plant, accessed October 22, 2020.
43 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net coevals for all sectors ( thousand megawatthours ), North Carolina, 2001-19.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory ( based on Form EIA-860M as a append to Form EIA-860 ), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2020, North Carolina, Technology : Landfill Gas, Wood/Wood Waste Biomass, other Waste Biomass.
45 Morrison, James, “ In North Carolina, Hog Waste Is Becoming A streamline Fuel Source, ” North Carolina Public Radio ( April 17, 2018 ).
46 Sullivan, Karen, “ Gas from swine, domestic fowl barren will world power 4 Duke plants, ” The Charlotte Observer ( March 20, 2016 ).
47 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacture facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, July 2020.
48 U.S. EIA, “ New EIA surveil collects data on product and sales of forest pellets, ” today in Energy ( December 14, 2016 ).
49 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
50 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors ( thousand megawatthours ), North Carolina, 2001-19.
51 Avangrid Renewables, Amazon Wind Farm North Carolina – desert Wind, accessed October 22, 2020.
52 Carnevale, Chris, “ Amazon Wind Farm in the North Carolina, ” CleanEnergy.org ( August 14, 2020 ).
53 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net coevals for all sectors ( thousand megawatthours ), North Carolina, 2001-19.
54 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Wind Energy in North Carolina, Maps & Data, North Carolina Offshore 90-Meter Wind Map and Wind Resource Potential, accessed October 22, 2020.
55 U.S. EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, Table 4, Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state of matter, July 2020.
56 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity : January 2020, available in XLS.
57 Tyton Biofuels, renewable fuel Production in North Carolina, accessed October 22, 2020.
58 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locators, North Carolina, Biodiesel ( B20 and above ), accessed October 22, 2020.
59 U.S. EIA, “ New EPA regnant expands sale of 15 % ethyl alcohol blended motor gasoline, ” today in Energy ( July 16, 2019 ).
60 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locations, Ethanol ( E85 ), accessed October 22, 2020.
61 U.S. EIA, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
62 North Carolina Utilities Commission, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard ( REPS ), accessed October 22, 2020.
63 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard, updated July 9, 2018.
64 North Carolina Utilities Commission, Annual Report Regarding Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard in North Carolina ( September 28, 2020 ), Conclusions, p. 57.
65 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Profile Data, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves as of 12/31, and Estimated Production, 2013-18.
66 North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, NC Mineral Resources, An Overview, Mineral Fuels, Petroleum and natural accelerator, accessed October 22, 2020.
67 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, North Carolina, Annual ( as of January 1 ), 2015-20.
68 Colonial Pipeline Company, About Us, Our Company, System Map, accessed October 22, 2020.
69 Kinder Morgan, Product Pipelines, Southeast Operations, Plantation Pipe Line Company, accessed October 22, 2020.
70 Enterprise Products Partners L.P., NGL Pipelines, Dixie Pipeline, accessed October 22, 2020.
71 Enterprise Products Partners L.P., Dixie Pipeline, accessed October 22, 2020.
72 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and other Liquids, Company Level Imports, Previous Issues, July 2019 through July 2020.
73 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
74 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
75 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C2, Energy Consumption Estimates for Selected Energy Sources in Physical Units, 2018.
76 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. gasoline Requirements, U.S Gasoline Requirements Map ( updated January 2018 ).
77 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table E20, Motor Gasoline Price and Expenditure Estimates, Ranked by State, 2018.
78 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
79 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
80 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2018.
81 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31, Wet NG, 2013-18.
82 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Gross Withdrawals, 2014-19.
83 North Carolina Environmental Quality, Oil and Gas Program Geologic Assessment, accessed October 23, 2020.
84 Leonard, Anne, “ North Carolina Natural Gas ? East Coast Triassic Rift Basins Opening Up, ” Enverus ( October 9, 2014 ).
85 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, North Carolina, 2014-19.
86 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Natural Gas Interstate Receipts From Virginia, Annual, 1989-2017.
87 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Maryland and Virginia, 2014-19.
88 MVP Southgate, Overview, accessed October 24, 2020.
89 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas, Pipelines, Pipeline Projects, accessed October 24, 2020.
90 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C16, Natural Gas Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
91 U.S. EIA, North Carolina Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers, 1997-2019.
92 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End-Use, North Carolina, Annual, 2014-19.
93 U.S. Census Bureau, House Heating Fuel, Table B25040, 2019 ACS 1-Year Estimates Detailed Tables, North Carolina.
94 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, sum and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2018.
95 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 ( October 5, 2020 ), board 15, recoverable coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2019.
96 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 ( October 5, 2020 ), mesa 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2019 and 2018.
97 North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, Energy, Mineral and Land Resources, North Carolina Geological Survey, Mineral Fuels, NC Mineral Resources, An Overview, Mineral Fuels, Coal, accessed October 23, 2020.
98 North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, Energy, Mineral and Land Resources, North Carolina Geological Survey, Mineral Fuels, NC Mineral Resources, An Overview, Mineral Fuels, Peat, accessed October 23, 2020.
99 U.S. EIA, Glossary, Peat, accessed October 23, 2020.
100 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2019 ( October 5, 2020 ), postpone 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2019 and 2018.
101 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory ( based on Form EIA-860M as a accessory to Form EIA-860 ), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2020, North Carolina, Technology : conventional Steam Coal.
102 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2019 ( October 5, 2020 ), domestic distribution of coal by : address state, consumer, finish and method acting of transportation, North Carolina Table DS-31, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2019.

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