A change in the sequence of bases in DNA or RNA is called a mutation. Does the word mutant make you think of science fiction and bug-eyed monsters ? Think again. Everyone has mutations. In fact, most people have dozens or even hundreds of mutations in their deoxyribonucleic acid. Mutations are essential for development to occur. They are the ultimate source of all fresh genetic fabric – newfangled alleles – in a species. Although most mutations have no effect on the organisms in which they occur, some mutations are beneficial. even harmful mutations rarely cause drastic changes in organisms.
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Types of Mutations
There are a variety show of types of mutations. Two major categories of mutations are germline mutations and bodily mutations.
- Germline mutations occur in gametes. These mutations are especially significant because they can be transmitted to offspring and every cell in the offspring will have the mutation.
- Somatic mutations occur in other cells of the body. These mutations may have little effect on the organism because they are confined to just one cell and its daughter cells. Somatic mutations cannot be passed on to offspring.
Mutations besides differ in the manner that the genic material is changed. Mutations may change the structure of a chromosome or just change a single nucleotide.
Chromosomal alterations are mutations that change chromosome structure. They occur when a section of a chromosome breaks off and rejoins falsely or does not rejoin at all. possible ways these mutations can occur are illustrated in Figure below. Go to this radio link for a television about chromosomal alterations : hypertext transfer protocol : //www.youtube.com/watch ? v=OrXRSqa_3lU ( 2:18 ). chromosomal Alterations. Chromosomal alterations are major changes in the familial material.
chromosomal alterations are identical serious. They much result in the end of the organism in which they occur. If the organism survives, it may be affected in multiple ways. An example of a human chromosomal change is the mutation that causes Down Syndrome. It is a duplicate mutant that leads to developmental delays and other abnormalities.
A point mutation is a change in a single nucleotide in DNA. This type of mutant is normally less serious than a chromosomal revision. An exemplar of a point mutation is a mutation that changes the codon UUU to the codon UCU. Point mutations can be silent, missense, or folderal mutations, as shown in Table below. The effects of target mutations depend on how they change the genetic code. You can watch an animation about folderal mutations at this link : www.biostudio.com/d_ % 20Nonsen … 20Mutation.htm. Type Description Example Effect Silent mutated codon codes for the same amino acid CAA (glutamine) → CAG (glutamine) none Missense mutated codon codes for a different amino acid CAA (glutamine) → CCA (proline) variable Nonsense mutated codon is a premature stop codon CAA (glutamine) → UAA (stop) usually serious
A frameshift mutation is a deletion or interpolation of one or more nucleotides that changes the reading frame of the al-qaeda sequence. Deletions remove nucleotides, and insertions add nucleotides. Consider the come sequence of bases in RNA : AUG-AAU-ACG-GCU = start-asparagine-threonine-alanine
now, assume an interpolation occurs in this sequence. Let ’ s say an A nucleotide is inserted after the start codon AUG : AUG-AAA-UAC-GGC-U = start-lysine-tyrosine-glycine even though the rest of the sequence is unaltered, this insertion changes the reading frame and therefore all of the codons that follow it. As this exercise shows, a frameshift mutation can dramatically change how the codons in messenger rna are read. This can have a drastic effect on the protein product.