Primary elections, much abbreviated to primaries, are a march by which voters can indicate their preference for their party ‘s campaigner, or a candidate in general, in an approaching general election, local anesthetic election, or by-election. Depending on the country and administrative divisions within the country, voters might consist of the general public in what is called an open primary, or entirely the members of a political party in what is called a close primary. In addition to these, there are other variants on primaries ( which are discussed below ) that are used by many countries holding elections throughout the universe. The origins of primary elections can be traced to the progressive motion in the United States, which aimed to take the power of campaigner nomination from party leaders to the people. [ 1 ] however, political parties control the method acting of nomination of candidates for office in the name of the party. other methods of selecting candidates include caucuses, conventions and nomination meetings.
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Types [edit ]
General [edit ]
Where primary elections are organized by parties, not the administration, two types of primaries can broadly be distinguished :
- Closed primary. (synonyms: internal primaries, party primaries) In the case of closed primaries, internal primaries, or party primaries, only party members can vote.
- Open primary. All voters can take part in an open primary and may cast votes on a ballot of any party. The party may require them to express their support to the party’s values and pay a small contribution to the costs of the primary.
United States [edit ]
In the United States, other types can be differentiated :
- Closed primary. People may vote in a party’s primary only if they are registered members of that party prior to election day. Independents cannot participate. Note that because some political parties name themselves independent, the terms “non-partisan” or “unaffiliated” often replace “independent” when referring to those who are not affiliated with a political party. Thirteen states & Washington D.C., – Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, Pennsylvania, and Wyoming – have closed primaries.
- Semi-closed. As in closed primaries, registered party members can vote only in their own party’s primary. Semi-closed systems, however, allow unaffiliated voters to participate as well. Depending on the state, independents either make their choice of party primary privately, inside the voting booth, or publicly, by registering with any party on Election Day. Fifteen states – Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Utah, and West Virginia – have semi-closed primaries that allow voters to register or change party preference on election day. Massachusetts allows unenrolled voters or members of minor parties to vote in the primary of either major party, but registration or party changes must be done no fewer than 20 days prior to the primary.
- Open primary. A registered voter may vote in any party primary regardless of his or her own party affiliation. Fourteen states – Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Hawaii, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, South Carolina, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin – have open primaries. When voters do not register with a party before the primary, it is called a pick-a-party primary because the voter can select which party’s primary they wish to vote in on election day. Because of the open nature of this system, a practice known as raiding may occur. Raiding consists of voters of one party crossing over and voting in the primary of another party, effectively allowing a party to help choose its opposition’s candidate. The theory is that opposing party members vote for the weakest candidate of the opposite party in order to give their own party the advantage in the general election. An example of this can be seen in the 1998 Vermont senatorial primary with the nomination of Fred Tuttle as the Republican candidate in the general election[ citation needed].
- Semi-open. A registered voter need not publicly declare which political party’s primary that they will vote in before entering the voting booth. When voters identify themselves to the election officials, they must request a party’s specific ballot. Only one ballot is cast by each voter. In many states with semi-open primaries, election officials or poll workers from their respective parties record each voter’s choice of party and provide access to this information. The primary difference between a semi-open and open primary system is the use of a party-specific ballot. In a semi-open primary, a public declaration in front of the election judges is made and a party-specific ballot given to the voter to cast. Certain states that use the open-primary format may print a single ballot and the voter must choose on the ballot itself which political party’s candidates they will select for a contested office.
- Blanket primary. A primary in which the ballot is not restricted to candidates from one party.
- Nonpartisan blanket primary. A primary in which the ballot is not restricted to candidates from one party, where the top two candidates advance to the general election regardless of party affiliation. Louisiana has famously operated under this system, which has been nicknamed the “jungle primary.” California has used a nonpartisan blanket primary since 2012 after passing Proposition 14 in 2010, and the State of Washington has used a nonpartisan blanket primary since 2008.
In the United States [edit ]
The United States is one of a handful of countries to select candidates through popular vote in a primary election organization ; [ 10 ] most early countries rely on party leaders or paid up party members to select candidates, as was previously the case in the U.S. [ 11 ] In modern politics, primary elections have been described as a significant fomite for taking decision-making from political insiders to the voters, though this is disputed by choose political science research. [ 12 ] The choice of candidates for federal, state, and local general elections takes place in primary elections organized by the public administration for the general vote public to participate in for the purpose of nominating the respective parties ‘ official candidates ; state voters start the electoral process for governors and legislators through the basal process, vitamin a well as for many local anesthetic officials from city councilors to county commissioners. [ 13 ] The campaigner who moves from the primary to be successful in the cosmopolitan election takes public office .
Primaries can be used in nonpartisan elections to reduce the dress of candidates that go on to the general election ( qualifying primary ). ( In the U.S., many city, county and school board elections are non-partisan, although much the political affiliations of candidates are normally known. ) generally, if a campaigner receives more than 50 % of the vote in the primary, he or she is mechanically elected, without having to run again in the general election. If no candidate receives a majority, doubly adenine many candidates pass the primary coil as can win in the cosmopolitan election, so a one seat election elementary would allow the top two primary coil candidates to participate in the general election following .
across-the-board [edit ]
When a qualify elementary is applied to a partisan election, it becomes what is generally known as a blanket [ 14 ] or Louisiana primary : typically, if no campaigner wins a majority in the primary, the two candidates receiving the highest pluralities, careless of party affiliation, go on to a general election that is in effect a run-off. This often has the consequence of eliminating minor parties from the general election, and frequently the general election becomes a single-party election. Unlike a battalion vote system, a run-off organization meets the Condorcet loser criterion in that the candidate that ultimately wins would not have been beaten in a bipartite subspecies with every one of the other candidates. Because many Washington residents were disappointed over the loss of their blanket primary, which the Washington State Grange helped institute in 1935, the Grange filed Initiative 872 in 2004 to establish a blanket primary for partisan races, thereby allowing voters to once again cross party lines in the primary election. The two candidates with the most votes then progress to the general election, regardless of their party affiliation. Supporters claimed it would bring back voter choice ; opponents said it would exclude third parties and independents from general election ballots, could result in democratic or Republican-only races in certain districts, and would in fact reduce voter option. The inaugural was put to a public vote in November 2004 and passed. On 15 July 2005, the inaugural was found unconstitutional by the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington. The U.S. Supreme Court heard the Grange ‘s attract of the case in October 2007. In March 2009, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Grange-sponsored Top 2 primary, citing a lack of compelling testify to overturn the voter-approved first step. [ 15 ] In elections using electoral systems where strategic nomination is a refer, primaries can be very significant in preventing “ knockoff ” candidates that split their constituency ‘s right to vote because of their similarities. Primaries allow political parties to select and unite behind one candidate. however, tactical vote is sometimes a concern in non-partisan primaries as members of the opposite party can vote for the weaker candidate in order to face an easier general election. In California, under Proposition 14 ( top Two Candidates Open Primary Act ), a voter-approved referendum, in all races except for that for U.S. president of the united states and county cardinal committee offices, all candidates running in a chief election regardless of party will appear on a single elementary election vote and voters may vote for any candidate, with the lead two vote-getters overall moving on to the general election regardless of party. The effect of this is that it will be potential for two Republicans or two Democrats to compete against each other in a general election if those candidates receive the most primary-election corroborate. [ 16 ] [ 17 ]
Partisan [edit ]
As a result of a federal court decision in Idaho, [ 18 ] the 2011 Idaho Legislature passed House Bill 351 implementing a close primary system. [ 19 ] Oregon was the first american state in which a bind primary election was conducted entirely via the internet. The election was held by the Independent Party of Oregon in July, 2010. [ 20 ]
presidential primaries [edit ]
In the United States, Iowa and New Hampshire have drawn attention every four years because they hold the first caucus and primary election, respectively, and much give a campaigner the momentum to win their party ‘s nomination. Since 2000, the primary in South Carolina has besides become increasingly important as its the first southern state to hold a elementary election in the calendar year. [ 21 ] A criticism of the current presidential primary election schedule is that it gives undue weight to the few states with early primaries, as those states often build momentum for leading candidates and principle out trailing candidates long before the rest of the country has even had a chance to weigh in, leaving the last states with about no actual remark on the process. The counterargument to this criticism, however, is that, by subjecting candidates to the scrutiny of a few early states, the parties can weed out candidates who are unfit for office. The Democratic National Committee ( DNC ) proposed a newly schedule and a new principle set for the 2008 presidential basal elections. Among the changes : the basal election cycle would start about a year earlier than in previous cycles, states from the West and the South would be included in the earlier part of the schedule, and candidates who run in chief elections not held in accord with the DNC ‘s proposed agenda ( as the DNC does not have any direct control over each submit ‘s official election schedules ) would be penalized by being stripped of delegates won in offending states. The New York Times called the be active, “ the biggest shift in the way Democrats have nominated their presidential candidates in 30 years. ” [ 22 ] Of eminence regarding the DNC ‘s propose 2008 presidential primary election schedule is that it contrasted with the Republican National Committee ‘s ( RNC ) rules regarding presidential elementary elections. “ No presidential primary, caucus, convention, or other meet may be held for the aim of voting for a presidential campaigner and/or selecting delegates or alternate delegates to the national conventionality, anterior to the inaugural Tuesday of February in the year in which the national convention is held. ” [ 23 ] In 2024, this go steady is February 6. Candidates for U.S. President who seek their party ‘s nomination participate in primary elections run by express governments, or caucuses run by the political parties. Unlike an election where the merely participation is casting a vote, a caucus is a gathering or “ meet of party members designed to select candidates and propose policies ”. [ 24 ] Both primaries and caucuses are used in the presidential nominating speech action, beginning in January or February and culminating in the former summer political party conventions. Candidates may earn convention delegates from each department of state primary coil or caucus. Sitting presidents broadly do not face serious competition from their party .
primary coil classifications [edit ]
While it is clear that the closed/semi-closed/semi-open/open classification normally used by scholars studying elementary systems does not fully explain the highly nuanced differences seen from state to department of state, however, it is very utilitarian and has real-world implications for the electorate, election officials, and the candidates themselves. arsenic far as the electorate is concerned, the extent of engagement allowed to weak partisans and independents depends about entirely on which of the aforesaid categories well describes their state of matter ‘s primary system. distinctly, open and semi-open systems favor this type of voter, since they can choose which primary they vote in on a annually basis under these models. In close basal systems, true independents are, for all virtual purposes, shut out of the process. This classification further affects the relationship between basal elections and election commissioners and officials. The more open the system, the greater the casual of raiding, or voters voting in the other party ‘s primary coil in hopes of getting a weaker adversary chosen to run against a strong campaigner in the general election. Raiding has proven nerve-racking to the relationships between political parties, who feel cheated by the arrangement, and election officials, who try to make the system run deoxyadenosine monophosphate smoothly as potential. possibly the most dramatic impression this classification system has on the primary march is its influence on the candidates themselves. Whether a system is open or close dictates the manner candidates run their campaigns. In a closed system, from the time a candidate qualifies to the day of the primary, he tends to have to cater to partisans, who tend to lean to the more extreme point ends of the ideological spectrum. In the general election, under the assumptions of the median voter theorem, the candidate must move more towards the center in hopes of capturing a plurality .
In Europe [edit ]
In Europe, primaries are not organized by the populace administration but by parties themselves. Legislation is by and large dumb on primaries. The main rationality to this is that the electoral system used to form governments, be it proportional representation or two-round systems, lessens the need for an open primary. Governments are not involved in the process ; however, parties may need their cooperation, notably in the subject of an assailable elementary, e.g. to obtain the electoral roll, or to cover the territory with a sufficient phone number of polling stations. Whereas closed primaries are rather common within many european countries, few political parties in Europe already opted for outdoors primaries [ citation needed ]. Parties broadly organise primaries to nominate the party leader ( leadership election ). The underlying argue for that is that most european countries are parliamentary democracies. National governments are derived from the majority in the Parliament, which means that the head of the politics is generally the leader of the winning party. France is one exception to this rule. close primaries happen in many european countries, while open primaries have so far merely occurred in the socialistic and social-democratic parties in Greece and Italy, whereas the France ‘s Socialist Party organised the inaugural open basal in France in October 2011.
One of the more recent developments is organizing primaries on the european charge. european parties that organized primaries thus far were the European Green Party ( EGP ) and the Party of european Socialists ( PES ) .
Italy [edit ]
chief election were introduced in Italy to establish the centre-left candidates for 2005 regional election. In that occasion the centre-left The Union coalescence held open primaries in ordain to select candidates for President of Apulia and Calabria. A more politically significant primary was held on 16 October 2005, when The Union asked its voters to decide the campaigner for Prime Minister in the 2006 general election : 4,300,000 voters showed up and Romano Prodi won hands down. Two years by and by, on 14 October 2007, voters of the democratic Party were called to choose the party leader among a list of six, their representatives to the Constituent Assembly and the local anesthetic leaders. The primary was a success, involving more than 3,500,000 people across Italy, and gave to the winner Walter Veltroni momentum in a unmanageable period for the politics and the centre-left coalescence. The centre-right ( see House of Freedoms, The People of Freedom, centre-right coalition and Forza Italia ) has never held a primary at the home level, but held some experiments at the identical local level .
France [edit ]
In France, elections follow a two-round system. In the first gear round, all candidates who have qualified ( for exemplar, by obtaining a minimal number of signatures of support from elected officials ) are on the ballot. In practice, each campaigner normally represents a political party, big or little. In the second round, held two weeks later, the peak two candidates run against each other, with the candidates from losing parties normally endorsing one of the two finalists. The means by which the candidate of an established political party is selected has evolved. Until 2012, none of the six Presidents elected through steer election faced a competitive home election .
soviet union [edit ]
The first primaries in the history of Russia were held in May 2000 in St. Petersburg, the local branches of the parties Yabloko and the Union of Right Forces, who before the Gubernatorial election offered citizens to choose a unmarried campaigner from the democratic enemy. In 2007, before the parliamentary elections, United Russia held primaries in respective regions. however, its results were not sufficiently taken into history when nominating candidates from the party. For example, the congress of United Russia included in the regional party list in the Samara region not the winners of the primaries, but those who did not even participate in the primaries. In the same year 2007, A Just Russia held the primaries to determine the campaigner for the Gubernatorial election in Altai Krai. Anyone could vote for them, for which special items were opened. however, in the future, A Just Russia did not begin to pursue the primaries. In 2011, United Russia, together with the All-Russian People ‘s Front, held primaries for the nominating speech of candidates for the parlmentary election. This vote was called the “ All-People ‘s Primaries ”, but in fact it was not. Candidates for the primaries were selected by extra committees. not even all party members had the right to vote, but alone about 200,000 specially selected electors. In addition, the results of voting on the primaries were in most cases ignored. Of the 80 lists of regional groups of candidates for the State Duma, nominated by the congress of United Russia, only 8 lists coincided with the lists of winners of the primaries. All the like, the event played a function in the elimination of candidates : there were cases when the current deputies of the State Duma, having seen that they did not enjoy the support of electors, withdrew their candidacies. In the future, United Russia has sometimes resorted to an “ open ” model of primaries, which allows vote to all interested voters. In 2014, in the primaries of the “ United Russia ” before the elections to the Moscow City Duma, any Muscovite could vote, and not merely register electors. In 2016, the primaries for the excerpt of candidates for parliamentary elections were held by four parties : United Russia, People ‘s Freedom Party, [ 26 ] the Party of Growth [ 27 ] and the park Alliance. [ 28 ] The most massive were 22 May 2016 primaries of the United Russia, which could vote for every citizen who has an active electoral right. however, the primaries, adenine well as earlier, were not binding for the leadership of United Russia : a number of winners of the primaries were withdrawn by the leadership without any explanation of reasons, and in 18 single-seat constituencies the party did not nominate any candidates. A strike example was the Nizhny Tagil constituency, where the campaigner from the United Russia was approved candidate, who took the fourth place in the primaries. [ 29 ] Finally, a number of candidates were included in the party tilt on the marriage proposal of the party leader Dmitry Medvedev from among those who did not even participate in the primaries. In 2017, the Party of Growth holds the primaries for the nomination of candidates for the presidential election. These are the first presidential primaries in the history of Russia. however, voting for candidates will take place via the Internet within three months, and, according to the spokesman of the party, the results of the primaries will not be compulsory for the nomination of the campaigner and the party convention may nominate another candidate who does not even participate in the primaries, or even not nominate candidates and corroborate President Vladimir Putin, if he decides to be re-elected. [ 30 ]
United Kingdom [edit ]
For the 2010 general election, the Conservative Party used outdoors primaries to select two candidates for Member of Parliament. Further open primaries were used to select some bourgeois candidates for the 2015 general election, and there are hopes other parties may nominate future candidates in this way. [ 31 ] [ 32 ]
Hungary [edit ]
A two-round primary coil election was held in Budapest, Hungary in 2019 between four opposition parties, to select a unmarried candidate to the 2019 Budapest mayoral election. [ 33 ] [ 34 ] A smaller basal was besides held in the district of Ferencváros. [ 35 ] For the 2022 parliamentary elections, the opposition parties organized a primary to select both their candidates for MPs and prime curate. [ 36 ]
socialist parties [edit ]
In fall 2011, here was how the twenty-nine socialist, social-democratic, and parturiency parties penis of the Party of european Socialists ( PES ) had designated their party leader .
European Union [edit ]
With a view to the european elections, many european political parties consider organising a presidential primary. indeed, the Lisbon treaty, which entered into force in December 2009, lays down that the consequence of elections to the european Parliament must be taken into account in selecting the President of the Commission ; the Commission is in some respects the executive arm of the EU and so its president can be regarded as the EU flower minister. Parties are consequently encouraged to designate their candidates for Commission president ahead of the adjacent election in 2014, in ordain to allow voters to vote with a broad cognition of the facts. many movements are now asking for primaries to designate these candidates .
The european think-tank Notre Europe besides evokes the mind that european political parties should designate their candidate for Vice-President/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs. [ 42 ] This would lead european parties to have “ presidential tickets ” on the american english model. [ original research? ] ultimately, the European Parliament envisaged to introduce a requirement for home democracy in the regulation on the codified of european political parties. european parties would therefore have to involve individual members in the major decisions such as designating the presidential candidate. [ 43 ]
In Canada [edit ]
As in Europe, nomination meetings and leadership elections ( slightly similar to basal elections ) in Canada are not organized by the public administration but by parties themselves. [ 44 ] Political parties participate in federal elections to the House of Commons, in legislative elections in all ten provinces, and in Yukon. ( The legislatures and elections in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are non-partisan. )
typically, in the months before an anticipate general election, local anesthetic riding associations of political parties in each electoral district will schedule and announce a Nomination Meeting ( similar to a nominate caucus in the United States ). manque candidates will then file nomination papers with the association, and normally will devote meter to solicit existing party members, and to sign up new party members who will besides support them at the nomination confluence. At the meeting, typically each candidate will speak, and then members in attendance will vote. The electoral organization most frequently used is an exhaustive vote system ; if no candidate has over 50 % of the votes, the candidate with the lowest act of votes will be dropped and another ballot will be held. besides, other candidates who recognize that they will probably not win may withdraw between ballots, and may “ throw their support ” to ( encourage their own supporters to vote for ) another campaigner. After the nomination confluence, the candidate and the association will obtain approval from party headquarters, and file the campaigner ‘s official nominating speech papers and necessity fees and deposits with Elections Canada or the provincial/territorial election commissions as appropriate. At times, party headquarters may overturn an association ‘s choose campaigner ; for example, if any disgraceful information about the campaigner comes to light after the nominating speech. A party headquarters may besides “ chute ” a big candidate into an easy-to-win ride, removing the want to have a nomination meeting. These situations entirely come up infrequently, as they tend to cause disenchantment among a party ‘s supporters .
Party leaders [edit ]
canadian political parties besides organize their own elections of party leaders. not merely will the party drawing card run for a seat in their own choose riding, they will besides become Prime Minister ( in a federal election ) or Premier ( in a province or district ) should their party win the most seats. therefore, a leadership election is besides considered to be one for the party ‘s de facto candidate for Prime Minister or Premier. If the party wins the second-most seats, the party leader will become Leader of the Official Opposition ; if the party comes third gear or lower but maintains official party condition, the leader will calm be recognized as the drawing card of their party, and will be responsible for co-ordinating the activities and affairs of their party ‘s caucus in the legislature. In the past, canadian political parties chose party leaders through an American-style delegate leadership convention. local ride associations would choose delegates, normally in a manner alike to how they would choose a campaigner for election. These delegates typically said explicitly which leadership candidate they would support. Those delegates, ampere well as other delegates ( e.g. sitting party members of Parliament or the legislature, or delegates from party-affiliated organizations such as tug unions in the encase of the New Democratic Party ), would then vote, again using the exhaustive ballot method acting, until a drawing card was chosen. Some provincial political parties retain the delegate convention format.
recently, Canada ‘s major political parties have moved to a “ one member, one vote “ system for their federal leadership elections. A leadership convention is still scheduled, but all party members have a find to vote for the modern drawing card. typically, members may vote either in person at the convention, on-line, or through a mail-in ballot. Instant-runoff vote is used in hale or in share to elect the leaders of the three largest federal political parties in Canada : the Liberal Party of Canada, [ 45 ] the Conservative Party of Canada, and the New Democratic Party, albeit the New Democratic Party uses a mix of IRV and exhaustive vote, allowing each extremity to choose one format or the early for their vote ( as was used in their 2017 leadership election ). In 2013, members of the Liberal Party of Canada elected Justin Trudeau as party leader through IRV in a home leadership election. [ 46 ] The Conservative Party used IRV ( where each of the party ‘s 338 ride associations are weighted equally, regardless of how many members voted in each riding ) to elect Erin O’Toole as party leader in 2020, Andrew Scheer in 2017, and Stephen Harper in 2004 .
Around the populace [edit ]
North America [edit ]
South America [edit ]
Europe [edit ]
Africa [edit ]
asia [edit ]
oceania [edit ]
- The Australian Labor Party and the National Party have conducted limited experiments with primary-style pre-selections.
- In 2018, the New South Wales branch of the Liberal Party rejected a motion by former Prime Minister Tony Abbott to have primary-style preselections.
See besides [edit ]
- Leadership election, a similar process in countries with a parliamentary system
- Sore-loser law, which states that the loser in a primary election cannot thereafter run as an independent in the general election
- Thomas W. Williams (Los Angeles), opposed the direct primary, 1915