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Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words

This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. This handout compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and includes a curtly excerpt that you can use to practice these skills.

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Paraphrasing is one way to use a textbook in your own writing without directly quoting reference material. Anytime you are taking information from a source that is not your own, you need to specify where you got that information .

A paraphrase is…

  • Your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form.
  • One legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source.
  • A more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.
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Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because…

  • It is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.
  • It helps you control the temptation to quote too much.
  • The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.

6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing

  1. Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.
  2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.
  3. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.
  4. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.
  5. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.
  6. Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper.
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Some examples to compare

note that the examples in this section use MLA style for in-text citation.

The original passage:

Students frequently overuse aim citation in taking notes, and as a resultant role they overuse quotations in the final [ research ] newspaper. probably merely about 10 % of your concluding manuscript should appear as immediately quoted topic. consequently, you should strive to limit the sum of accurate transcribe of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed., 1976, pp. 46-47 .

A legitimate paraphrase:

In research papers, students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable grade. Since the trouble normally originates during note accept, it is necessity to minimize the material recorded verbatim ( Lester 46-47 ).

An acceptable summary:

Students should take equitable a few notes in address quotation from sources to help minimize the measure of quoted substantial in a research composition ( Lester 46-47 ) .

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A plagiarized version:

Students often use besides many send quotations when they take notes, resulting in besides many of them in the final examination research paper. In fact, probably alone about 10 % of the concluding replicate should consist of immediately quoted material. So it is important to limit the total of reservoir corporeal copied while taking notes .
A bill about plagiarism : This example has been classed as plagiarism, in character, because of its bankruptcy to deploy any citation. plagiarism is a serious discourtesy in the academic worldly concern. however, we acknowledge that plagiarism is a difficult term to define ; that its definition may be contextually sensitive ; and that not all instances of plagiarism are created equal—that is, there are varying “ degrees of egregiousness ” for different cases of plagiarism .