A late article in The Des Moines Register newspaper has caused considerable controversy regarding nitrogen in Iowa streams and rivers. The article ( High ammonia levels threaten D.M. ’ mho water, April 6, 2008 ) featured information about “ ammonia ” levels in certain Iowa surface body of water systems during the recent winter time period .
The implications were that manure and fertilizer lotion to cropland, and subsequent snowmelt and runoff, had resulted in higher than normal “ ammonia ” levels in surface waters. In the article there was a comparison of the reported levels to an ammonia read of 0.10 parts per million considered harmful to aquatic life. unfortunately, measured coat water concentrations ( and american samoa reported in the article ) are not ammonia-N. rather they are ammonium-N asset ammonia-N. Therefore, a comparison of the reported values to a concentration of ammonia water toxic to aquatic life is inaccurate .
Ammonia is un-ionized, and has the formula NH3. ammonium is ionized, and has the convention NH4+. The major component that determines the symmetry of ammonia or ammonium in water is urine ph. The activeness of ammonia besides is influenced by temperature and ionic strength. This is crucial as the nonionized NH3 is the form that can be toxic to aquatic organisms. The ionized NH4 is basically harmless to aquatic organisms.
Bạn đang đọc: Surface Waters: Ammonium is Not Ammonia – Part 1
The chemical equation that drives the relationship between ammonia water and ammonium is :
NH3 + H2O ↔ NH4+ + OH-
When the ph is first gear, the reaction is driven to the right, and when the ph is eminent, the reaction is driven to the left. In general, at a temperature of around room temperature, at a ph less than 6.0, the symmetry of ammonium-N asset ammonia-N as NH3 is very-very gloomy and as NH4+ is very-very high. At a ph around 8.0, the proportion as NH3 is 10 percentage or less, and at a ph slenderly above 9.0, the proportion is about 50 percentage. The action of aqueous ammonia besides is much lower at low temperatures and higher at warmly temperatures. This means that at low temperatures and first gear ph the activity as NH3 is even lower, and as NH4+ is even higher. Therefore, sensitive aquatic organisms can tolerate a higher total “ ammonium-N plus ammonia-N ” at broken temperatures than at high temperatures ascribable to much less aqueous NH3 being present in the water system.
The lab method acting used for analysis of water measures ammonium-N plus ammonia-N. It is identical difficult to directly determine the activity of aqueous ammonia water, then rather the deputy of ammonium-N summation ammonia-N is used, and then tabled values of ammonium-N summation ammonia-N are used to determine if a measured concentration will provide ammonia at a level that is damaging to aquatic organisms, for acute and chronic conditions. These table values are a foster since the measure concentration is a full of the ammonium-N plus ammonia-N, and the concentrations in the tables for chronic or acute levels are set to reflect second to likely concentrations of ammonia-N for specific water ph and temperature .
The acute and chronic criteria for “ ammonia ” have been established for Iowa streams designated for aquatic life sentence uses ( chapter 61, Iowa Administrative Code ; tables 3a, 3b and 3c ). One has to cautiously use the tables as the list concentrations are for ammonium-N summation ammonia-N, not ammonia-N ( the header to the tables says “ ammonia ” ). As expected, chronic criteria ( ammonium-N plus ammonia-N concentration ) are higher for gloomy pH and broken temperature water ( ex. pH 6.5 at 0 degrees C is 6.67 magnesium N/l, early life stages present ) and lower for high ph and high temperature water system ( ex. pH 8.0 and 26 degrees C is 1.16 magnesium N/l ). similarly, acute accent criteria are higher for moo ph water ( ex. at a ph of 6.5 the criteria for class B ( WW1-3 ) and B ( LW ) is 48.8 milligram N/l ) and lower for high ph water ( ex. at a ph of 8.0 is 8.4 milligram N/l ) .
The early February 2008 ambient monitor levels from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Storet database for the rivers identified in The Des Moines Register article ranged from 0.13 to 1.00 mg N/l ( ammonium-N plus ammonia-N ). At the water ph and temperature during that fourth dimension ( 7.6 to 8.1 ph and 0 to 1.0 degrees C ), the monitor values are well below both acute and chronic criteria for those conditions ( acute criteria 17.0 to 6.95 mg N/l and chronic 3.98 to 2.10 mg/l ). Measured ammonium-N plus ammonia-N tends to be variable during the winter months, but the variation and levels this year are not higher than late history.
Bottom production line, aqueous nitrogen is building complex, as is the effect on aquatic life. For evaluation of water quality monitor data, it is important to know what is being measured and to be careful and don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate compare apples and oranges .
John Sawyer is an associate professor of agronomy, with extension and research responsibilities in territory birthrate and nutrient management .