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All through history, handiness of salt has been pivotal to culture. In Britain, the suffix “ -wich “ in a place name sometimes means it was once a source of strategic arms limitation talks, as in Northwich and Droitwich, although other – wich towns are so named from the Saxon ‘wic ‘, meaning strengthen harp or department store. The Natron Valley was a key area that supported the egyptian Empire to its north, because it supplied it with a kind of salt that came to be called by its name, natron. today, salt is about universally accessible, relatively cheap, and often iodized .
Sources [edit ]
Salt comes from two chief sources : sea water and the sodium chloride mineral halite ( besides known as rock salt ). Rock salt occurs in huge beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of envelop lakes, playas, and seas. Salt beds may be up to 350 m thick and underlie across-the-board areas. In the United States and Canada across-the-board underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts of Ontario and under much of the Michigan basin. other deposits are in Texas, Ohio, Kansas, New Mexico, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan. In the United Kingdom underground beds are found in Cheshire and around Droitwich. Salzburg, Austria, was named “ the city of salt ” for its mines. [ 1 ] High-quality rock strategic arms limitation talks was cut in medieval Transylvania, Maramureş and Southern Poland ( Wieliczka ). Tuzla in Bosnia and Herzegovina was named in hungarian Só ( salt ) from the one-twelfth hundred on and later “ place of salt ” by Turks. Salt is extracted from metro beds either by mine or by solution mining using water to dissolve the salt. In solution mining the salt reaches the airfoil as seawater, from which the water is evaporated leaving salt crystals .
history [edit ]
Ancient world [edit ]
early neolithic salt production, dating to approximately 6,000 BCE, has been identified at an excavation, in Poiana Slatinei-Lunca, Romania. [ 2 ] Solnitsata, the earliest known township in Europe, was built around a strategic arms limitation talks production facility. Located in contemporary Bulgaria, the town is thought by archaeologists to have accumulated wealth by supplying strategic arms limitation talks throughout the Balkans. [ 3 ] Salt was of high value to the Jews, Greeks, Tamils, Chinese, Hittites [ 4 ] and other peoples of antiquity. aside from being a contributing component in the development of civilization, salt was besides used in the military practice of salting the earth by versatile peoples, beginning with the Assyrians. [ 5 ] In the early years of the Roman Republic, with the growth of the city of Rome, roads were built to make department of transportation of salt to the capital city easy. An case was the Via Salaria ( in the first place a Sabine trail ), leading from Rome to the Adriatic Sea. The Adriatic, having a higher salt ascribable to its shallow depth, had more fat solar ponds compared with those of the Tyrrhenian Sea, much closer to Rome. The word “ wage ” comes from the Latin son for salt. The haunting modern claim that the Roman Legions were sometimes paid in salt is baseless ; [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] a salārium may have been an allowance paid to Roman soldiers for the purchase of salt, but even that is not well established. [ 9 ] [ 10 ]
upright derricks and drilling outfit from Qing dynasty Zigong, China extracting seawater from trench underground wells. During the late Roman Empire and throughout the Middle Ages salt was a cherished commodity carried along the salt roads into the heartland of the Germanic tribe. Caravans consisting of a many as forty thousand camels traversed four hundred miles of the Sahara bear strategic arms limitation talks to inland markets in the Sahel, sometimes trade salt for slaves : Timbuktu was a note salt and slave market. [ 11 ] Salt in Chinese history was both a driver of technical development and a stable beginning of gross for the imperial politics .
Cities and wars [edit ]
Salt product on Læsø, Denmark ( reconstruction ) Salt has played a outstanding character in determining the power and localization of the world ‘s big cities. Liverpool rose from just a small English port to become the prime exporting port for the salt dig in the bang-up Cheshire salt mines and therefore became the entrepôt for much of the global ‘s salt in the nineteenth century. [ 1 ] Salt created and destroyed empires. The salt mines of Poland led to a huge kingdom in the sixteenth century, only to be demolished when Germans brought in sea salt ( which most of the earth considered superior to rock salt ). Venice fought and won a war with Genoa over spices. however, Genoese Christopher Columbus and Giovanni Caboto would late destroy the Mediterranean barter by introducing the New World to the market. [ 1 ] Cities, states and duchies along the salt roads exacted heavy duties and taxes for the salt passing through their territories. This drill even caused the geological formation of cities, such as the city of Munich in 1158, when the then Duke of Bavaria, Henry the Lion, decided that the bishops of Freising no longer needed their salt gross. [ 1 ] The gabelle —a hated french salt tax—was enacted in 1286 and maintained until 1790. Because of the gabelles, common strategic arms limitation talks was of such a high measure that it caused mass population shifts and exodus, attracted invaders and caused wars. [ 1 ]
In american history, salt has been a major divisor in outcomes of wars. In the Revolutionary War, Loyalists intercepted Patriot salt shipments in an try to interfere with their ability to preserve food. [ 1 ] During the War of 1812, salt brine was used to pay american soldiers in the field, as the federal government was excessively poor to pay them with money. [ 12 ] Before Lewis and Clark set out for the Louisiana Territory, President Jefferson in his address to Congress mentioned a mountain of salt, 180 miles long and 45 across-the-board, supposed to lie near the Missouri River, which would have been of impossible value, as a reason for their expedition. [ 13 ] During the indian independence movement, Mahatma Gandhi organized the Salt Satyagraha protest to demonstrate against the british salt tax. [ 1 ]
Salt production in England [edit ]
tell of early neolithic age salt pans, dating to 3766-3647 BCE, have been unearthed in Yorkshire. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] evidence of bronze age production, c. 1,400 BCE, has been identified in Somerset. [ 16 ] Iron historic period production in Hampshire. [ 17 ] Roman Rock Salt production output in Cheshire. [ 18 ] Salt was produced from both mines and sea in Medieval England. The open-pan salt making method acting was used along the Lincolnshire coast and in the saltmarshes of Bitterne Manor on the banks of the River Itchen in Hampshire where salt output was a celebrated industry. [ 19 ] Wich and wych are mention associated ( but not entirely ) with brine springs or wells in England. primitively derived from the Latin vicus, meaning “ place ”, by the eleventh century habit of the ‘wich ‘ suffix in placenames was associated with places with a specify function including that of salt production. [ 20 ] Several English places carry the suffix and are historically related to salt, including the four Cheshire ‘wiches ‘ of Middlewich, Nantwich, Northwich and Leftwich ( a little village confederacy of Northwich ), and Droitwich in Worcestershire. Middlewich, Nantwich, Northwich and Droitwich are known as the “ Domesday Wiches ” due to their mention in the Domesday Book of 1086, “ an reading of the significance of the salt-working towns in the economy of the region, and indeed of the country ”. [ 20 ] Salt was very important to Europe because it was hard to trade with Africa and they needed to produce it themselves .
Salt deal [edit ]
Monopolies over salt product and deal were substantive aspects of politics tax income in imperial China and retained its meaning until twentieth hundred. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] During mod times, it became more profitable to sell salted food than pure salt. Thus sources of food to salt went hand in hand with salt reach. The british controlled saltworks in the Bahamas ampere well as north american english pod fisheries. [ 1 ] The search for anoint in the belated 19th and early twentieth centuries used the engineering and methods pioneered by strategic arms limitation talks miners, even to the degree that they looked for vegetable oil where salt domes were located. [ 1 ]
Salt production [edit ]
A ‘zouthuisje ‘, i.e. fiddling salt-house, used for salt making nowadays. many of these structures can be found near Twekkelo in Twente, the Netherlands On an industrial scale, salt is produced in one of two principal ways : the dehydration of salt urine ( brine ) or by mining. dehydration can either be solar vaporization [ 23 ] or using some heat device .
solar vaporization of seawater [edit ]
In the chastise climate ( one for which the ratio of vaporization to rainfall is appropriately high ) it is potential to use solar dehydration of sea body of water to produce salt. Brine is evaporated in a linked set of ponds until the solution is sufficiently concentrated by the final pond so that the salt crystallizes on the pond ‘s shock .
afford pan production from brine [edit ]
One of the traditional methods of salt production in more temperate climates is using open pans. [ 24 ] In open-pan production, salt seawater is heated in boastfully, shallow open pans. The earliest examples of this date back to prehistoric times and the pans were made of either a type of ceramic called briquetage, or lead. late examples were made from iron. This change coincided with a exchange from wood to coal for the function of heating the seawater. [ 25 ] Brine would be pumped into the pans and concentrated by the heating system of the arouse burning underneath. As crystals of salt formed, these would be raked out and more seawater added .
close pan production under vacuum [edit ]
The open pan salt works has effectively been replaced with a closed pan system where the brine solution is evaporated under a partial derivative vacuum. [ 26 ]
Salt mines [edit ]
In the moment half of the nineteenth century, industrial mining and new boring techniques made the discovery of more and deeper deposits possible, increasing mine strategic arms limitation talks ‘s parcel of the marketplace. Although mine strategic arms limitation talks was broadly more expensive than extracting it from brine via solar vaporization of seawater, the introduction of this new informant reduced the price of salt ascribable to a reduction of monopolization. extraction of salt from brine is hush heavily used ; for exemplar, vacuum salt produced by british Salt in Middlewich has 57 % of the UK commercialize [ 27 ] for strategic arms limitation talks used in fudge .
salt from ashes [edit ]
In traditional salt production in the Visayas Islands of the Philippines, salt are made from coconut husks, driftwood, or early plant count soaked in seawater for at least several months. These are burned into ash then seawater is run through the ashes on a filter. The leave brine is then evaporated in containers. Coconut milk is sometimes added to the seawater before dehydration. The commit is endangered due to contest with cheap industrially-produced commercial salt. only two traditions survive to the salute day : asín tibuok and túltul ( or dúkdok ). [ 28 ] [ 29 ]
other salt uses [edit ]
The earliest taxonomic exposition of the different kinds of salts, its uses, and the methods of its origin was published in China around 2700 BCE. [ citation needed ] Hippocrates encouraged his fellow healers to use salt water to heal respective ailments by immersing their patients in sea body of water. The ancient Greeks continued this, and in 1753, English author and doctor Richard Russell published The Uses of Sea Water in which he declared that strategic arms limitation talks was a “ common defense against the corruption of…bodies ” and “ contribut [ es ] greatly to all cures ”. [ 30 ] In Ethiopia blocks of salt, called amoleh, were carved from the salt pans of the Afar Depression, particularly around Lake Afrera, then carried by camel west to Atsbi and Ficho in the upland, whence traders distributed them throughout the pillow of Ethiopia, as far south as the Kingdom of Kaffa. [ 31 ] These salt blocks served as a shape of currency .