Difference Between RNA and mRNA

Main Difference – RNA vs mRNA

RNA and mRNA are two molecules, which act as mediators of biological processes such as protein expression and cell bespeak. Three major types of RNA is found within the cell. They are messenger RNA ( messenger rna ), transfer RNA ( transfer rna ), and ribosomal RNA ( rRNA ). deoxyribonucleic acid carries genetic information in most of the cells. deoxyribonucleic acid is transcribed into RNA and RNA is translated into proteins ; this is known as the central dogma of molecular biota. The main difference between RNA and messenger rna is that RNA is the product of the transcription of genes in the genome whereas mRNA is the processed product of RNA during post transcriptional modifications and serves as the template to produce a particular amino acid sequence during translation in ribosomes.

Key Areas Covered

1. What is RNA
– Definition, Types, Function
2. What is mRNA
– Definition, Features, Function
3. What are the Similarities Between RNA and mRNA
– Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between RNA and mRNA
– Comparison of Key Differences
Key Terms: DNA, Messenger RNA (mRNA), pre-mRNA, Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), Ribosome, RNA, Transcription, Transfer RNA (tRNA), TranslationDifference Between RNA and mRNA - Comparison Summary

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What is RNA

The ribonucleic acids are referred to as RNA. RNA carries familial data written in DNA, chiefly for protein synthesis. It is a single stranded nucleic acid, composed of RNA nucleotides. RNA nucleotide consist of a ribose carbohydrate, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The four types of nitrogenous bases found in RNA are adenine ( A ), guanine ( G ), cytosine ( C ), and uracil ( U ). The process of RNA deduction is known as transcription. Some RNA molecules are capable of folding into a three-dimensional structure known as hairpin loops via complementary base coupling. The transcription of DNA into RNA is governed by the enzyme, RNA polymerase. RNA synthesis occurs inside the nucleus. The three major types of RNA found in the cell are messenger RNA ( messenger rna ), transfer RNA ( transfer rna ), and ribosomal RNA ( rRNA ) .

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

transfer RNA plays a major function in protein synthesis to translate the genetic code in messenger rna into a detail amino acidic sequence. Since transfer rna forms a hairpin loop structure, the shape of the transfer rna is like a clover leaf. A specific amino acid is attached to the acceptor of the transfer rna atom. The anticodon site of the transfer rna atom is capable of recognizing the complemental codon sequence in the messenger rna molecule. The specific amino acid carried by the transfer rna atom is attached to the growing polypeptide chain via a peptide adhere. The three-d structure of the transfer rna molecule is shown in figure 1 .
Difference Between RNA and mRNA_Figure 1

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

Ribosomal RNA is involved in producing ribosomes, which facilitates the translation of messenger rna into a detail amino acerb sequence. Along with several proteins, rRNA forms the organelle known as the ribosome. A ribosome is composed of two subunits, the small fractional monetary unit and the large fractional monetary unit. The messenger rna atom binds to the messenger rna binding locate of the small fractional monetary unit of the ribosome. The two subunits are found detached from each early while the ribosome is free. The adhere of an messenger rna molecule into the small fractional monetary unit induces the adhere of the bombastic fractional monetary unit of the ribosome with the small fractional monetary unit. then, the translation of the genetic code in the messenger rna molecule begins and transfer rna molecules recognize the codon sequences in the messenger rna. The formation of peptide bonds between incoming amino acid and the existing amino acid is governed by rRNA in the ribosome. Once the polypeptide chain is released from the ribosome, the two subunits are again detached from each other. The process of polypeptide synthesis by ribosomes is shown in design 2 .
Difference Between RNA and mRNA_Figure 2 Some little regulative RNA molecules can besides be found in the cell. They are microRNA ( miRNA ), little interfering RNA ( siRNA ), little nuclear RNA ( snRNA ), and humble nucleolar RNA ( snoRNA ). The miRNA is involved in inhibiting gene expression through RNA hindrance. The siRNA is besides involved in the regulation of arrangement of genes. The snRNA and snoRNA are involved in modifying early RNAs .

What is mRNA

The messenger RNA is referred to as messenger rna. The messenger rna molecules are formed by the transcription of genes, which are encoded for a particular protein. The nucleotide sequence of a gene is transcribed into a messenger RNA atom by the enzyme, RNA polymerase. In eukaryotes, the transcribe RNA molecule is called as pre-mRNA. Pre-mRNA molecule undergoes post transcriptional modifications to produce messenger rna. eukaryotic genes are composed of exons, which are readily transcribed into the pre-mRNA molecule. These introns are removed and exons are joined together in a procedure called marry. The addition of an RNA crown at the 5 ’ end and a poly A tail at the 3 ’ end of the pre-mRNA atom protect the messenger rna molecule from abasement .
Main Difference - RNA vs mRNA The processed messenger rna molecule is called as mature messenger rna and ultimately, those suppurate messenger rna molecules are transported into the cytoplasm in holy order to undergo translation. In prokaryotes, the messenger rna molecule contains the exact nucleotide sequence of the gene. The social organization of a typical suppurate messenger rna atom is shown in figure 3.

Similarities Between RNA and mRNA

  • Both RNA and mRNA are single-stranded nucleic acids, made up of RNA nucleotides.
  • Both RNA and mRNA contain uracil.
  • Both RNA and mRNA are formed by transcription of DNA in the genome by the action of an enzyme known as RNA polymerase.
  • Both RNA and mRNA are capable of forming hairpin loops.
  • The main function of both RNA and mRNA is to mediate transcription and translation.

Difference Between RNA and mRNA

Definition

RNA: RNA is a type of nucleic acerb containing ribose and uracil .
mRNA : messenger rna is a type of RNA, which encodes for a detail amino acid sequence of a protein .

Significance

RNA: Messenger RNA ( messenger rna ), transfer RNA ( transfer rna ), and ribosomal RNA ( rRNA ) are the three major types of RNA found in the cell .
mRNA: The messenger rna is a type of RNA .

Function

RNA: RNA is involved in mediating biological processes of the cell such as protein expression and cell bespeak .
mRNA: The messenger rna is encoded for a particular protein. The message of a protein is sent for the translation from the nucleus via messenger rna .

Conclusion

RNA and mRNA are two types of nucleic acids, mediating the protein synthesis in the cell. Both RNA and messenger rna contain ribose and uracil in their structure. The three major types of RNA are messenger rna, transfer rna, and rRNA. The messenger rna is encoded for an amino acid sequence of a specific protein. The transfer rna brings specific amino acids to the ribosome during translation. The rRNA is involved in forming ribosomes, which facilitates transformation. The chief difference between RNA and messenger rna is the function of each molecule during protein synthesis.

Reference:

1. Bailey, Regina. “ What Are the Types RNA ? ” ThoughtCo. N.p., n.d. Web. Available here. 12 July 2017.
2. “ Messenger RNA ( messenger rna ). ” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., n.d. Web. Available here. 12 July 2017 .

Image Courtesy:

1. “ TRNA ” ( CC BY 3.0 ) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “ Peptide syn ” By Boumphreyfr – Own function ( CC BY-SA 3.0 ) via Commons Wikimedia
3. “ MRNA social organization ” By Daylite – Own sour ( Public Domain ) via Commons Wikimedia