Islam and Sikhism

overview of the relationship between the religions of Islam and Sikhism
Islam is an Abrahamic religion founded in the arabian Peninsula, while Sikhism is a Dharmic religion founded in the Punjab region of the indian subcontinent. Islam means ‘peace ‘ or ‘submission to God ‘. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The bible Sikh is derived from a Sanskrit parole meaning ‘disciple ‘, or one who learns. [ 3 ] Both religions are [ [ pantheist ] : sufi Muslims and Sikhs believe that the ‘creator and universe are onw and the same thing ‘. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] Salafi Muslims, on the other hand, disagree. Sufi Muslims differ from Sikhs in that they believe that God manifests his attributes, namely the 99 names or attributes through his creation. [ 4 ] According to Salafism, God ‘s attributes are separate from his creation as he is only above his throne [ clarification needed ] as Sunni Sufi Muslims believe that God is not like the creation in any way any. Sunni Sufi Muslims do not believe God needs a place. [ 7 ] Islam believes that Muhammad was the survive prophet, to whom the Quran was revealed by God in the seventh century CE. Sikhism was founded in the fifteenth century CE by Guru Nanak. Guru Granth Sahib is the scripture followed by Sikhs as “ The Living Guru ”. [ 5 ] [ 8 ] In Islam, the legal system based on the Quran and the Sunnah is known as Sharia ; there is no such legal system mentioned in Guru Granth Sahib. daily prayers are one of the pillars of Islam, and they are compulsory for all Muslims. [ 9 ] Baptized Sikhs read the five banis as part of their daily everyday, Nitnem. Islam requires annual zakah ( alms giving ) by Muslims. [ 10 ] Kirat Karna ( doing an honest support — earning honestly without any screen of corruption ) ; Naam Japna ( to chant and meditate on Naam, read and follow “ The One ” ) ; and Vand Chhako ( altruistic service [ sewa ] and sharing with others ) are fundamental to Sikhism given by [ tone ] Guru Nanak Dev Ji. pilgrimage ( to Mecca ) is a all-important partially of Islam, while Sikhism denounces pilgrimages, circumcision and rituals. [ 11 ]

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There has been a history of constructive determine and conflict between Islam and Sikhism. The Sikh bible Guru Granth Sahib includes teachings from Muslims, namely saints ( Baba Farid ), a Muslim of the Chishti Sufi order and Kabir. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ]

comparison [edit ]

belief [edit ]

God [edit ]

sikhism believes that God is amorphous ( nirankar ). [ 5 ] [ 15 ] It is a monotheistic religion in that it believe in a one God ( Waheguru ), [ 5 ] and it has besides been seen as a mannequin of panentheism. God in the nirgun expression is without attributes, unmanifest, not seen, but all permeate and percolate, omnipresent. God in the sargun aspect is manifest has attributes, qualities, and seen in the solid creation .
Ik Onkar
There is only one God, he is the ageless truth, he is without fear, he is without hate, immortal, without form, beyond birth and death …
Islam is besides a monotheistic religion as Muslims believe one God ( Allah ) and particularly in the concept of tawḥīd. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] This Islamic doctrine is a separate of its Shahada. [ 17 ] [ 18 ]

allege : He is Allah, the One and only ; ( 1 ) Allah, the Eternal, Absolute ; ( 2 ) He begetteth not, nor is He begotten ; ( 3 ) And there is none like unto Him. ( 4 )Al-Ikhlas

Guru and Messengers [edit ]

sikhism reveres Guru Nanak as the founder of the religion who taught of the One Divine Creator, Lord on Earth, which is manifest in the ten forms of the ten-spot Gurus of Sikhs. Sikhism accepts that there were cleric messengers—including Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed —in other religions. [ 5 ] Islam believes that there were many messengers of God, with the last messenger being Prophet Mohammed, who was received the Quran as the last revelation of God. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] This conflicts with Sikhism whose first messengers came around 800 years after the Prophet Mohammed .

Duties/articles of faith [edit ]

The three duties of Sikhs are Naam japna ( meditating on Waheguru ‘s appoint ), kirat karni ( earn honest living ), and vand chakna ( sharing one ‘s earning with others ). [ 21 ] Baptized Sikhs, the Amritdhari, belong to to the Khalsa Panth and wear the 5 articles of faith, known as the Five Ks :

  1. Kes — uncut hair and beard;
  2. Kangha — a wooden comb;
  3. Kara — a bracelet worn around the wrist;
  4. Kirpan — a small dagger; and
  5. Kachera — a special undergarment.

The Khalsa Panth was created on Vaisakhi in 1699 by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh. The Amritdhari have a set up of seven Sikh prayers, called Nitnem, which they are required to practise on a day by day footing. [ citation needed ] The Five Pillars of Islam are duties incumbent on every muslim :

  1. Shahada — testimony that “There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of God”[22]
  2. Salat — prayers;
  3. Zakat — Giving of alms
  4. Sawm — Fasting during Ramadan; and
  5. Hajj — pilgrimage to Mecca).

These 5 practices are essential to Sunni Islam ; Shi’a Muslims subscribe to 8 ritual practices which well overlap with the five Pillars. [ 23 ] [ 24 ]

spiritualty [edit ]

sikhism has an ambivalent attitude towards miracles and rejects any shape of discrimination within and against other religions. [ 25 ] sikhism does not believe in rituals, but is permissive of traditions. [ 8 ] Sikhism rejects asceticism and chastity. [ 26 ] The Sikhism founder Guru Nanak adopted the Indic ideas on metempsychosis, and taught the ideas of reincarnation. [ 26 ] Adi Granth of Sikhism recognizes and includes spiritual wisdom from early religions. [ 8 ] [ 27 ] [ page needed ] Islam considers itself to be a perfect and final religion, [ 27 ] and warns against invention ( bid‘ah ) to what is revealed in the Quran and the Hadiths. [ 8 ] Islam believes in miracles and a concluding opinion day ( Yawm al-Qiyāmah ). [ 28 ]

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Apostasy and position on early religions [edit ]

sikhism allows exemption of conscience and choosing one ‘s own path. [ 29 ] It teaches that all religious traditions are valid, leading to the same Waheguru, and it rejects that any particular religion has a monopoly regarding absolute truth for all of humanness. [ 30 ] Islam teaches that non-Islamic religious traditions have been distorted by homo to suit their desires. [ 31 ] [ 32 ] Accordingly, apostasy —that is abandonment of Islam by a Muslim and conversion to another religion or atheism—is a religious crime in Islam punishable with death. [ 22 ] [ 33 ] According to the Hadiths, states John Esposito ( 2003 ), leaving Islam is punishable by “ decapitation, crucifixion or banishment, ” and sharia ( Islamic legal code ) traditionally has required death by the sword for an adult sane male who voluntarily leaves Islam. [ 22 ] however, adds Esposito ( 2003 ), modern thinkers have argued against murder as punishment for apostasy from Islam by invoking Quranic verse 2:257. [ 22 ]

predestination [edit ]

sikhism believes in predestination, and what one does, speaks and hears is already pre-ordained ; one has to just follow the lay down path per God ‘s hukam. [ 34 ] Islam believes in predestination, or divine preordainment ( al-qadā wa l-qadar ), wherein God has full cognition and command over all that occurs. [ 35 ] [ 36 ] According to Islamic custom, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the ‘Preserved Tablet ‘. [ 37 ] [ full citation needed ]

drill [edit ]

Grooming and dress [edit ]

The Khalsa Panth among Sikhs are guided by the five Ks. They keep their head hair hanker ( kesh ) and men wear turbans ( question hair cover ) ; women may besides wear a pillbox by their choice. They carry a wooden comb, wear an iron bracelet, wear a cotton underwear, and carry a kirpan ( steel sword ). [ 38 ] Non-baptized Sikh women are free to dress as they wish in Sikhism. [ 39 ] Sex segregation is not required in public places or Sikh temples by Sikhism. [ 39 ] Muslim males are encouraged to grow their beards and trim the mustache. [ 40 ] Men in some Muslim communities wear turban ( head capital ). [ 41 ] Muslim men, angstrom well as women, must dress modestly. Muslim women are required to cover their bodies in populace, [ 42 ] with some Islamic scholars stating that the Hadiths ask covering the side excessively ; it is besides highly recommend to cover their hair’s-breadth. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] Islam encourages gender segregation in public, and Muslim men and women do not normally mix in populace places such as mosques. These restrictions are depart of Adab. [ 40 ]

circumcision [edit ]

sikhism does not require circumcision of either males or females, and criticizes the practice. [ 45 ]

In Islam, no verse in the Quran supports male or female circumcision ( FGM/C ). [ 46 ] Male circumcision is a far-flung exercise and considered compulsory for Muslim males according to Sunnah. [ 47 ] Muslim scholars disagree whether any authentic Sunnah in the hadiths supports the exercise of female circumcision. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] [ 50 ] The Ijma, or consensus of Muslim scholars, varies by the Islamic law ( fiqh ) on whether circumcision is optional, honorable or obligatory for Muslim male and females. [ note 1 ] Prominent Islamic scholars have both supported and opposed FGM/C for female Muslims. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] [ note 1 ] [ note 2 ]

food and fast [edit ]

Sikhs are prohibited from eating kutha meat —meat obtained by ritualistic part and a slow death of the animal, as in Islamic halal or jewish kosher kernel. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] The official Sikh Code of Conduct Sikh Rehat Maryada merely forbids the consumption of Kutha kernel. [ 57 ] Charity meals distributed at a Sikh Gurudwara, called a langar, is only lacto-vegetarian. [ 56 ] [ 58 ] Some groups [ 59 ] of Sikhism disagree with the pulmonary tuberculosis of kernel raw. [ 60 ] In practice, some Sikhs eat kernel, while some Sikhs avoid meat. Baptized Sikhs are stern lacto-vegetarians. [ 57 ] Sikhism encourages sobriety and moderation in food, i.e. to neither starve or gorge. thus, it does not find deservingness in fast, which is banned as an austerity, as a ritual, or as a necrosis of the torso by means of willful crave. [ 61 ] Islam has Quranic restrictions on food, such as how the kernel is prepared. [ 62 ] Halal kernel is required in Islam, prepared by ritual slaughter that involves cutting the jugular vein veins of the animal with a astute knife. This leads to death, through bleed, of the animal. [ 63 ] kernel from animals that die of lifelike causes or accident is not allowed, unless necessity. [ 62 ] Beef is a scrupulously satisfactory food to Muslims, but pork and alcohol is not. [ 64 ] Fasting is commended in Islam, particularly in the calendar month of Ramadan. [ 61 ]

tax [edit ]

sikhism has never required a special tax for non-Sikhs. Muslim rulers in history compelled the payment of a special tax ( jizya ) from dhimmi, non-Muslims living in a Muslim submit. The Muslim jurists required pornographic, dislodge, sane males among the dhimmi community to pay the jizya, while exempting non-Muslim women, children, elders, handicapped, the ill, the harebrained, monks, hermits, slaves and musta’mins—non-Muslim foreigners who only temporarily reside in Muslim lands. Dhimmis who chose to join military service were besides exempted from payment, as were those who could not afford to pay. According to Islamic law, non-Muslim elders, handicapped etc. must be given pensions, and they must not go into begging. The aim of the jizya was in substitute for protective covering and defending all non-Muslim residents against outside forces or invasions. Jizya was never imposed with the function to humiliate, demean or impose the religion of Islam on the non-Muslims. As Muslims give zakat ( 2.5 % of their savings, this amount of zakat paid by Muslims, exceeded the sum of jizya paid by the non-Muslims ), which goes to the government for people in want. Dhimmis were excluded from having to pay Islamic religious tax such as zakat, besides were excluded from other Islamic religious obligations. [ 65 ] [ 66 ]

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Worship and pilgrimage [edit ]

The Golden Temple ( Harmandir Sahib ) in Amritsar, India is not only a cardinal religious place of the Sikhs, but besides a symbol of human brotherhood and equality. The four entrances of the holy place shrine from all four directions, signify that people belonging to every walk of life are equally welcome. The aureate synagogue is a holy site for Sikhs and is welcome to people of any religion. [ 67 ] Sikhs do not believe in pilgrimages. however, the first Sikh Guru, Baba Guru Nanak, is known to have attended the Hajj on one occasion. Mecca in Saudi Arabia is the central religious space in Islam. [ 68 ] [ 69 ] Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in Islam, [ 70 ] and a pilgrimage to it ( Hajj ) is one of the pillars of Islam. Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city .

demography [edit ]

Islam is the second largest religion in the world as of twenty-first hundred with around 2 billion followers worldwide including of all its sects such as Shia, Sunni, Bohras, Hanafi, shafii, Maliki, Hanbali, Sufi & Deobandi. [ 71 ] [ 72 ]
While on the other hand, Sikhism is the fifth largest religion in the world as of twenty-first century with around 180 million followers, including all of its sects, such as Nanakpanthis & Khalsa Sikhs. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] [ 75 ] [ 76 ]

history [edit ]

Sikh Gurus [edit ]

During the period of Guru Nanak Dev Ji ( the 1st Guru of Sikhism ), many Punjabi Hindus converted to Sikhism. deoxyribonucleic acid tests and surveys done on the Sikhs state that sixty three percentage of the ancestors of Sikhs are Hindus and the rest Jains, Buddhists and Sufi Muslims. [ 77 ] Another theory suggests that about all Sikhs are in the first place descendants of Hindus rather than Muslims. Many are Jats ( a farm people that have a history of standing up to persecution ). [ 78 ] During Muslim Emperor Akbar ‘s rule, Sikhism and other religions were accepted and flourished. The Emperor established an Ibadat Khana, which served as a platform for religious debates and dialogues among different communities, including Sikhs. He besides visited Guru Amar Das ( 3rd Sikh Guru ) at Goindwal, where he ate at and offered donations for the Langar. [ 79 ] [ 80 ] For most of the Mughal Empire, however, Sikh Gurus were persecuted. Guru Arjan ( 5th Guru ), for exemplify, was executed by Jahangir. [ 81 ] After the martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Guru Hargobind ( 6th Guru ) saw that it would no retentive be possible to protect the Sikh community without the aid of arms. [ 82 ] He wore two swords of Miri and Piri and built the Akal Takhat, the throne of the Immortal, which is the highest political mental hospital of the Sikhs. [ 83 ] When Kashmiri Pandits were being forcefully converted to Islam by Aurangzeb, Guru Tegh Bahadur ( 9th Guru ) was tortured and beheaded for refusing to convert by Aurangzeb at Chandni Chowk in Delhi. [ 84 ] Fellow devotees Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dayala were besides tortured and executed, while Guru Tegh Bahadur was forced to watch. [ 85 ] [ 86 ] Guru Gobind Singh ( 10th Guru ) formed the Khalsa —the Army of the Akal Purakh ( Immortal ) —roughly 20 % of which would be of Muslim origin. Two of Guru Gobind Singh ‘s younger sons, Sahibzaade Fateh Singh ( aged 7 ) and Zorawar Singh ( aged 9 ), were bricked up active by Mughal Governor Wazir Khan in Sirhind, Punjab. When in South India, Guru Gobind Singh sent Banda Singh Bahadur to chastise the inhibitory Governor of Sirhind. Banda Singh captured Sirhind and laid the foundation of the first Sikh empire. [ 87 ] The Nawab of Malerkotla, Sher Mohammad Khan, protested against the execution of the Sahibzaade, after which Guru Gobind Singh blessed the state. many historians consider this as a reason why Malerkotla was the alone city not harmed by Banda Singh Bahadur during his military political campaign. [ 88 ] [ 89 ]

Sikh Rule [edit ]

The Muslim religious leadership and mosques endlessly received state support under Sikh rule. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] This was in contrast to the Muslims of Kashmir valley, where Sikh rule was by and large oppressive, [ 92 ] although Punjab was governed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh and Kashmir was ruled by Hindu Gulab Singh who protected possibly by the farness of Kashmir from the capital of the Sikh Empire in Lahore. [ 93 ] The region had passed from the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan, and four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals and the Afghans, to the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh in 1819. [ 94 ] As the Kashmiris had suffered under the Afghans, they initially welcomed the newly Sikh rulers, [ 95 ] however this percept late changed. [ 92 ] The Sikh rulers of Kashmir enacted respective anti-Muslim laws, [ 93 ] which included handing out death sentences for cow butcher, [ 95 ] closing down the Jamia Masjid in Srinagar, and banning the azaan, the public Muslim call to prayer. [ 93 ] respective european visitors who visited Kashmir during Sikh rule wrote of the abject poverty of the huge Muslim peasantry and the exorbitant taxes under the Sikh rulers. high gear taxes, according to some contemporary accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside. [ 95 ] however, after a famine in 1832, the Sikhs reduced the land tax. [ 93 ]

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Sufi Muslims and Sikhs [edit ]

In South Asia entirely, there are over 200 million Muslims who are followers of Sufi traditions, the most noteworthy being the Barelvi motion. [ 96 ] The Sikh Gurus had affable relations with many Sufi Saints, and in the Sikh holy place book, the Guru Granth Sahib, many Sufi and other Muslim scholars ’ quotes and wisdom are featured. [ 13 ] In December 1588, a Sufi ideal of Lahore, Mian Mir, visited Guru Arjan Dev at the initiation ceremony before the construction of the Harmandir Sahib ( Golden Temple ). [ 97 ] The Ahmadiyya Movement is a muslim reform campaign founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad ( regarded as the Masih and Mahdi ) to purify, defend, and proselytizing Islam. [ 98 ] Since the eighteenth century, Sufis and ancestors of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad had liqueur relations with Sikhs. Soon, however, the Sufis would have to battle the Sikh Ramgarhia. [ 99 ] however, as Ranjit Singh established the Sikh Empire, they pledged their loyalty and joined his army. For their military service as commanders, Ranjit Singh returned to them some of the lost territory of their Jagir. [ 99 ]

british India and Partition [edit ]

During the british Raj, Sikhs and Punjabi Muslims shared union, both participating in the british indian Army to whom they showed loyalty during the revolt of 1857. During the division of India in 1947, millions of Sikhs left Pakistan and moved into India, while millions of Muslims left India and moved into Pakistan ; in between this movement, there was much bloodshed. [ 100 ] As people from all walks of liveliness left their homes and belongings to travel across the newfangled frame of India and Pakistan, many were killed on trains and land in what is thought to be acts of retaliation. [ 100 ] Malerkotla was not feign and was viewed as a safe seaport for Muslims during the partition. [ 89 ] The popular caption associated with it is that the town was not impacted because of Guru Gobind Singh blessing it after its Nawab protested against the murder of the Guru ‘s sons. [ 89 ] Sikhs, under Master Tara Singh, were promised an autonomous area by Muhammad Ali Jinnah on behalf of the Muslim population, angstrom well as by Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, on behalf of the majority Hindu community. They feared that Sikhs would join Pakistan if their support was not secured in backing the partition of Punjab. After the early colonial kingdoms and deluxe states were being divided along language differences, Punjab and Sikhs were not given any particular status in the Constitution Act of India .

late relations [edit ]

Since 9/11, Muslims and Sikhs in America have endured hate crimes, denial of employment, bullying in schools, and profiling in airports. [ 101 ] In the UK, there have some instances of tension between Sikhs and Muslims, on allegations that some Sikhs have been forced to convert to Islam. [ 102 ] [ 103 ] In 2009, the Taliban in Pakistan demanded that Sikhs in the region pay them the jizya ( poll tax levied by Muslims on non-Muslim minorities ). [ 104 ] In 2010, the Taliban attacked many minorities including Sikhs resulting in two beheadings. [ 105 ] In April 2016, two 16-year-old Muslims bombed a gurdwara in the german city of Essen using arouse extinguishers that were converted into an explosive device. The devices detonated after a marriage party had left for the reception. A gurdwara priest was injured badly, while two others were treated for minor injuries. The build itself was damaged hard. One of the teens was in deradicalization plan. The two denied that it was scrupulously motivated, saying it was “ good for the kick of build up fireworks ! ” however, before setting off the blast, the two tried to break into another gurdwara in North Rhine Westphalia. [ 106 ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. a b[53] According to Islamic scholars Ibrahim Lethome Asmani and Maryam Sheikh Abdi, “ examination of all the text on Islamic law ( fiqh ) shows that scholars have no consensus on FGM/C. For example the four schools of intend express the following views : The Hanafi view is that it is a sunnah ( optional act ) for both females and males ; Maliki hold the view that it is wajib ( obligatory ) for males and sunnah ( optional ) for females ; Shafi ’ i view it as wajib ( obligatory ) for both females and males ; Hanbali have two opinions : it is wajib ( obligatory ) for both males and females, and it is wajib ( obligatory ) for males and makrumah ( honorable ) for females.

  2. ^[54] The 2013 report by the UNICEF states, “in many countries, FGM/C prevalence is highest among Muslim girls and women. The practice, however, is also found among Catholic and other Christian communities.”[55] According to 2016 estimates of UNICEF, at least 200 million girls and women alive today worldwide have undergo female genital mutilation/cutting.The 2013 report by the UNICEF states, “ in many countries, FGM/C prevalence is highest among Muslim girls and women. The practice, however, is besides found among catholic and early christian communities. ”

References [edit ]

further read [edit ]