A. Meaning of the Term “Social Studies”
The condition “ social studies ” has been misunderstood and misused both within and outside the teach profession. The Committee accepts the obligation and duty of clarifying its think of .
Outside the teaching profession the condition “ social studies ” has been used as a label for “ contemporary problems, ” as a term implying socialistic or reformer purposes, as relating to social service and social benefit, as an antonym to history, and as a pronounce for a method acting of teaching. These uses of the term are erroneous .
Within the teaching profession the term has had a kind of uses. It has been used to designate a combination of two or more subjects dealing with human relationships and to designate a combination of the social studies exclusive of history. The term has besides been applied to arithmetic, physics, and other subjects in order to stress their social aspects or their values to club. The degree to which each of these uses is valid will become apparent in the keep up discussion.
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Throughout the period from about 1850 to about 1910, history, civics, and geography were by and large regarded as quite precipitously differentiate subjects. No common interest brought them together. Late in the nineteenth hundred economics won a place in the course of study, and early on in the portray century sociology began to appear in school programs. Thus the social elements in the course of study have constantly increased .
Teachers and scholars began to realize that these five subjects—history, geography, civics, economics, and sociology—were closely related. All of them deal with human relationships : Geography describes man ’ second relations to the earth ; civics or government explains company ’ sulfur attempts to control individuals through organized states ; economics describes and analyzes homo ’ s efforts to make a know ; and sociology describes diverse kinds of group exist. History is the story of whatever man has done, with vehemence upon institutional and group activities. therefore in a smell history is the most inclusive and permeant of the social studies and partakes of the nature of each of the others when it records activities which fall within their setting .
Since all these subjects center their attention upon man and his relationships, it is a matter of convenience to group them under some general condition. The over-all term for the subjects of teaching which stress human relationships is social studies. The social studies constitute a field and not a national, a federation of subjects and not a incorporate discipline .
Schools have programs of social studies and teachers are employed to teach social studies, but-in the classroom they teach civics or history or sociology or some subject which draws materials from one or more of the other sociable studies subjects. very rarely does a teacher hear to teach the solid field as a single naturally, but he tries constantly to show the interrelations of the subjects within the field .
There is nothing unusual about grouping subjects into fields. The news “ science ” indicates such subjects as biology, botany, physics, and chemistry. “ Mathematics ” includes arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. The word “ literature ” or “ english ” is used to include the study of grammar, composition, history of literature, and the english classics. The terminus “ social studies ” is used in a similar manner to designate subjects which stress human relationships. It implies no particular type of constitution, social doctrine, or educational theory. It is a utilitarian and practical term, as barren of emotion and as general in its intension as the word “ science ” or “ mathematics. ” It is a commodious, inclusive appellation .
Although the term “ social studies ” includes chiefly history, geography, civics, economics, and sociology, it besides deals with materials from other subjects. Thus some elements of ethics, psychology, doctrine, anthropology, art, literature, and early subjects are included in respective courses in the social studies. even if these subjects are not all teach in the schools under their titles, they make their contributions to the social studies. however, since art and literature are primarily concerned with individuals preferably than with groups, while ethics, doctrine, psychology, and anthropology rarely appear in educate curriculums, the term “ social studies ” normally describes only the subjects listed above .
The social studies field is distinguished from early fields by the fact that its capacity is focused upon human beings and their interrelationships. All subjects have social utility, but that does not place them within the battlefield of the social studies. Arithmetic has social prize, but its content is not centered upon homo beings. therefore, the social studies are those subjects in which the contented deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the purpose is focused upon human beings .
furthermore, the term “ social studies ” refers primarily to those subjects concerning homo relationships which are organized for instructional purposes. Whether history at the college or graduate or research degree is a sociable sketch, a social skill, or a world may be a matter of debate. Regardless of this doubt, the fact is that the social studies at the elementary and high-school levels do serve instructional purposes. No one expects an elementary casebook in geography or a high-school history to be an original contribution to knowledge ; its chief purpose is to disseminate cognition which has already been ascertained. The sociable studies are organized primarily for instructional purposes .
The official manipulation of the term “ social studies ” to indicate the wholly field of subjects dealing with homo relationships dates from 1916. In that year the Committee on Social Studies of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education of the National Education Association published a report which gave sanction to the use of the term and delimited its intend. The organization in 1921 of the teachers in this field and the selection of the name, The National Council for the Social Studies, tended to standardize the use of the term. The united states constitution of the Council now states that “ The term ‘ social studies ’ is used to include history, economics, sociology, civics, geography, and all modifications or combinations of subjects whose capacity american samoa well as draw a bead on is predominantly social. ” Whether the term “ sociable studies ” is apt, accurate, or fortunate may be a matter of opinion, but there can be no doubt that it is the condition used to designate those school subjects which deal with human activities, achievements, and relationships.
The procedure of transforming the distinguish subjects into a federate group gave rise to diverse theories and ideas. Some writers and experimenters wanted to fuse two particular subjects ; others wanted to combine each of them with history ; and however others wanted to efface all subjects, leaving only the single field of the social studies. They differed widely with one another in the extent to which they combined materials from the diverse subjects, in the advantages claimed for each combination, and in the name given to the summons. All agreed, however, in basing their arguments upon the hypothesis that pupils could learn more promptly if civics and history, for exemplar, were fused into a meaning one. Regardless of the merits or wisdom of any detail hypothesis or experiment, one general result seems to have emerged from this period of test and mistake, namely, the widespread recognition of the cozy relations among all subjects within the social studies field. furthermore, social studies teachers have increasingly realized that the cozy relationship which exists among the subjects within the social studies field extends, though in a lesser degree, to subjects in other fields .
B. The Status of History within the Social Studies
There is a far-flung notion that history, particularly american history, is being squeezed out of the course of study in both the schools and the colleges. The assume campaign for this assume calamity is the bare universe of the field of the social studies. What are the facts ?
The recognition of the social studies field with the accompaniment surface of economics, sociology, social problems, and other studies inevitably lessened the prominence and predomination of history. Some educators and historians have argued that the summation of new subjects to the course of study necessarily lessened the meter devoted to history. The elimination of English history, the unify of ancient and medieval history, and the subsequent substitution of a annual class in worldly concern history for the biennial cycle in european history do seem to imply decrease attention to the subjects. The loss is more apparent than actual, however, for few students elected the biennial cycle in european history, whereas universe history has become a prerequisite in many schools. Though the change in the program makes it appear that history has suffered an enormous loss, the count of pupils who study worldly concern history compares favorably with the number of those who once studied one or the other of the courses in the biennial sequence .
Whatever may be the condition of european history, American history has made regular gains. It has gained in prison term allotment and in absolute and relative registration, and it has become a generally required subject in both the elementary and the high schools. The datum supporting these statements appear in Chapter III. here it is sufficient to point out that whatever loss history may have suffered has not been at the expense of the history of the United States .
furthermore, American history is receiving not entirely more formal recognition, but besides more attention within other subjects. numerous topics and units in economics, sociology, government, modern problems, and early subjects draw heavily from history. such topics as immigration, foreign trade, international relations, the duty, world resources, fare, and dozens of others can not be taught without extensive use of history. One may question the accuracy and sufficiency of the history learned by this indirect method acting, but no one can deny that big elements of modern and contemporaneous history are involved in the sketch of these topics .
While history therefore label may receive less course fourth dimension than it did twenty years ago, the social studies as a whole have received increased attention. Before that time geography, civics, and history were in the program, but they continued to be more or less unrelated subjects. The surface of the sociable studies field convinced school administrators and teachers of the sex appeal of providing a systematic sequence of sociable subjects, one for each grad level. Thus the sum prison term which is devoted to the sociable studies is far greater than the time once devoted to the classify subjects of civics, geography, and history .
The conclusions about the condition of history within the social studies are ( 1 ) the aggregate clock time devoted to the social studies is on the increase ; ( 2 ) european history at the high-school level has suffered a loss in time allotment, but not necessarily in registration ; and ( 3 ) american history has not only maintained its condition but has actually received increase care in the center grades, at the junior-high-school degree, in the senior senior high school school, and in college .
C. A Recommended Policy
There is no exclusive road to the accomplishment of a detail sympathize ; there is no exclusive method acting for the skill of a particular skill. respective materials can be utilized in the development of a desire insight. The Committee however believes that there are compelling reasons why it should endorse the study of history and why it should undertake to indicate at least the minimum contented of american history. [ 4 ] The argument is not based upon any loyalty to history for its own sake. The interests and capacities of pupils and the needs of club contain precession over the claims of any discipline. The controversy for history rests upon the assumption that it serves the needs of the individual and club. Citizens can not understand the society in which they live without some cognition of its past, and they can not give their fullest loyalty to the nation without understanding the ideals and aspirations which have developed in its history. Human relationships exist in time a well as in distance, and a program of social studies which neglects the clock time dimension will give a twist watch of the universe .
Believing that history offers peculiar values, the Committee is concerned here with the question of adjusting it to the other subjects within the sociable studies field. While it endorses the teaching of the other social studies and approves experimental attempts to combine, integrate, or unite respective elements from all the subjects, it condemns the mislabeling of courses. contemporary problems and stream events deserve attention, but they should not be scheduled as history nor regarded as substitutes for it. Faith in the efficacy of history, however, does not mean any disparagement of civics or economics or geography or sociology. Neither does it involve any derogation of stream events, social problems, or early combinations of subjects ; nor does it involve any understate of the value of units and topics. There is room in the social studies field for the study of history as history. Historical-mindedness and the historical method acting can not be learned from other subjects. And history, thus mastermind and labeled, does not constitute an obstacle to learning. It is numb and narrow only when written by sterile pedants and taught by ill-prepared and uninterested teachers. When written and taught by men and women who love and understand the subject it is an introduction to all aspects of life. Workmen and kings, chew the fat and state documents, mobs and legislatures, machines and ideas, institutions and revolutions—all these and hundreds of other topics by rights fall within the horizon of history.
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The Committee endorses the proceed discipline of the diverse sociable studies, both individually and in meaningful combinations. It goes even further and approves the efforts to correlate social studies with subjects outside the field ; for model, literature and history. The endorsement of such experiments does not imply any decrease faith in the value of studying history as such. It believes that there are values in the survey of systematic and organize bodies of materials ; for an understand of club and its problems the study of the slow evolution of institutions and nations is necessary. The careful analyze of history will result in an understand of chronology, continuity, cause and consequence, and of trends, forces, and movements .
The Committee therefore recommends ( 1 ) that United States history continue to be offered in the middle grades, in the junior high school, in the senior high school, and in college, and ( 2 ) that the use of history as an approach be emphasized in all social studies courses. This cogitation of national history should not be isolationist in tone or lookout, since our students will be affected by world events deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as by those which take place within our own borders. american history should, therefore, be taught with continuous awareness of the relations between the United States and the remainder of the worldly concern. furthermore, the history of the United States can not be amply sympathize without cognition of the history of other countries. The Committee therefore recommends that all high school students take a path in world history .
4. See Chapter VI for the recommend content .