Difference Between Starch Cellulose and Glycogen

Main Difference – Starch vs Cellulose vs Glycogen

Starch, cellulose, and glycogen are three types of polymeric carbohydrates found in living cells. Autotrophs produce glucose as the elementary boodle during photosynthesis. All these carbohydrate polymers, starch, cellulose, and glycogen, are made up of joining glucose monomer units together by different types of glycosidic bonds. They serve as chemical energy sources adenine well as the structural components of the cell. The main difference between starch, cellulose and glycogen is that starch is the main storage carbohydrate source in plants whereas cellulose is the main structural component of the cell wall of plants and glycogen is the main storage carbohydrate energy source of fungi and animals. 
This article explores ,
1. What is Starch
– Structure, Properties, Source, Function
2. What is Cellulose
– Structure, Properties, Source, Function
3. What is Glycogen
– Structure, Properties, Source, Function
4. What is the difference between Starch Cellulose and Glycogen

Difference Between Starch Cellulose and Glycogen- Comparison Summary

What is Starch

starch is the polysaccharide synthesized by k plants as their independent department of energy store. Glucose is produced by photosynthetic organisms as a simple organic compound. It is converted into insoluble substances like oils, fats, and starch for memory. insoluble storage substances like starch do not affect the water system likely inside the cell. They may not move aside from the storehouse areas. In plants, glucose and starch are converted into geomorphologic components like cellulose. They are besides converted into proteins which are required for the growth and animate of the cellular structures .
Plants store glucose in staple foods like fruits, tubers like potatoes, seeds like rice, wheat, corn, and cassava. Starch occurs in granules called amyloplasts, arranged into semi-crystalline structures. Starch is composed of two types of polymers : amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is a analogue and coiling chain but amylopectin is a bifurcate chain. Around 25 % of starch in plants are amylose while the remainder is amylopectin. Glucose 1-phosphate is first converted into ADP-glucose. then ADP-glucose is polymerized via 1,4-alpha glycosidic attachment by the enzyme, starch synthase. This polymerization forms the linear polymer, amylose. The 1,6-alpha glycosidic bonds are introduced to the chain by starch branching enzyme that produces amylopectin. Starch granules of rice are shown in figure 1 .
Difference Between Starch Cellulose and Glycogen - 1

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What is Cellulose

Cellulose is the polysaccharide which is made up of hundred to many thousands of glucose units. It is the major part of the cellular telephone wall of plants. many alga and oomycetes besides use cellulose to form their cell wall. Cellulose is a straight chain polymer in which 1,4-beta glycosidic bonds are formed between glucose molecules. Hydrogen bonds are formed between multiple hydroxyl groups of one chain with neighbor chains. This allows the two chains to be held together securely. Likewise, respective cellulose chains are involved in the formation of cellulose fibers. A cellulose character, which is made up of three cellulose chains, is shown in figure 2. Hydrogen bonds between cellulose chains are shown in cyan semblance lines .
Difference Between Starch Cellulose and Glycogen

What is Glycogen

glycogen is the storage polysaccharide of animals and fungi. It is the analogue to starch in animals. Glycogen is structurally like to amylopectin but highly branched than the latter. Linear chain forms via 1,4-alpha glycosidic bonds and branches occur via 1,6-alpha glycosidic bonds. Branching occurs in every 8 to 12 glucose molecules in the chain. Its granules occur in the cytosol of cells. Liver cells, ampere well as the muscle cells, memory glycogen in humans. once needed, glycogen is broken down into glucose by glycogen phosphorylase. The process is called glycogenolysis. Glucogon is the hormone which stimulates glycogenolysis. 1,4-alpha glycosidic and 1,6-alpha glycosidic linkages of glycogen are shown in calculate 3 .
Main Difference - Starch Cellulose vs Glycogen

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Difference Between Starch Cellulose and Glycogen

Definition

Starch: Starch is the main storage carbohydrate reference in plants .
Cellulose: Cellulose is the main structural part of the cell wall of plants .
Glycogen: Glycogen is the main repositing carbohydrate energy generator of fungi and animals .

Monomer

Starch: The monomer of starch is alpha glucose .
Cellulose: The monomer of cellulose is beta glucose .
Glycogen: The monomer of glycogen is alpha glucose .

Bond Between Monomers

Starch: The 1,4 glycosidic bonds in amylose and 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic adhesiveness in amylopectin occur between monomers of starch .
Cellulose: 1,4 glycosidic bonds occur between the monomers of cellulose .
Glycogen: 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds occur between the monomers of glycogen .

Nature of the Chain

Starch: Amylose is an unbranched, coiled chain and amylopectin is a hanker branch chain, of which some are coiled .
Cellulose: Cellulose is a straight, long, unbranched chain, which forms H-bonds with adjacent chains.

Glycogen: Glycogen is a light, many branched chains of which some chains are coiled .

Molecular Formula

Starch: The molecular convention of starch is ( C6H10O5 ) n
Cellulose: The molecular convention of cellulose is ( C6H10O5 ) n .
Glycogen: The molecular formula of glycogen is C24H42O21 .

Molar Mass

Starch: Molar mass of starch is varying .
Cellulose: Molar aggregate of cellulose is 162.1406 g/mol .
Glycogen: Molar bulk of glycogen is 666.5777 g/mol .

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Found in

Starch: Starch can be found in plants .
Cellulose: Cellulose is found in plants .
Glycogen: Glycogen is found in animals and fungi .

Function

Starch: Starch serves as a carbohydrate energy store .
Cellulose: Cellulose is involved in the build of cellular structures like cell walls .
Glycogen: Glycogen serves as a carbohydrate energy store .

Occurrence

Starch: Starch occurs in grains .
Cellulose: Cellulose occurs in fibers .
Glycogen: Glycogen occurs in small granules .

Conclusion

Starch, cellulose, and glycogen are polysaccharides found in organisms. Starch is found in plants as their major repositing shape of carbohydrates. linear chains of starch are called amylose and when branched they are called amylopectin. Glycogen is exchangeable to amylopectin but is highly branched. It is the major carbohydrate storage form in animals and fungi. Cellulose is a linear polysaccharide, which forms hydrogen bonds among several cellulose chains to form a hempen structure. It is the major component of the cell wall of plants, some alga, and fungi. thus, the main deviation between starch cellulose and glycogen is their character in each organism.

reference point :
1. Berg, Jeremy M. “ Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed by Linkage of Monosaccharides. ” Biochemistry. 5th edition. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 17 May 2017. .
image courtesy :
1. “ Rice starch – microscopy ” By MKD – Own knead ( CC BY-SA 3.0 ) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “ Cellulose spacefilling model ” By CeresVesta ( talk ) ( Uploads ) – own work ( Public Domain ) via Commons Wikimedia
3. “ Glycogen ” ( Public Domain ) via Commons Wikimedia

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